The Fourth and Fifth Rs
The Fourth and Fifth Rs
Respect and Responsibility
Volume 9, Issue 2 Winter 2003
New Hampton School: A National School of Character
Dr. Jeffrey Pratt Beedy, Headmaster
New Hampton was one of ten schools named a 2002 ment had dropped significantly,
National School of Character in the annual competi- and faculty morale was low.
tion sponsored by the Character Education Partner-
As New Hampton’s new
headmaster in 1992, I chal-
ew Hampton School is an independent boarding lenged the staff to transform the
school of 330 students in the small New England school into a community where
community of New Hampton, New Hampshire. relationships come first.
In the late 1980s, the school was in serious trouble. Enroll-
Dancing With the Natives
I believe that relationships
NEW HAMPTON'S MISSION STATEMENT
have to come first in a high
We enhance the emerging potential of our young school because adolescence is a stage where kids want
people as successful students, caring people, and respon-
to be understood by adults. They need a lot of adult
sible community members. New Hampton School employs
a Total Human Development approach to teaching and interaction time. Many of them have grown up in a world
learning which includes the intellectual, emotional, moral, of drive-through relationships.
physical, and spiritual lives of our students. Adults and
young people engage actively and compassionately in de- Adolescents today are as bright and talented as ever,
veloping their sense of purpose and diverse talents with but there’s been a breakdown of respect. Adults have
the ultimate goal of building a better world. to gain their trust. The only way to do that is through
world expects you teach
In a world that expects you to fit in, we teach
caring and meaningful relationships. They have to see
you to stand out. that you’re real. I refer to this mutual interaction as
"dancing with the natives."
To develop the whole person within the whole com-
munity, we . . . All of this has to be done with a sensitivity to this
• Provide a healthy learning environment in which
developmental period. That often means listening, un-
Pro healthy envir
all community members treat one another with
community members derstanding, and respecting the adolescent perspective
dignity and respect. before offering guidance and direction.
• Embrace scholarship, the ar ts, athletics, and com-
service equally important
munity service as equally impor tant mediums for for New Hampton is a community. Never
learning. before have I been in a school environment
• community members
Expect community members to accept responsi- where my teacher invited me to dinner with
for personal gro
bility for their personal growth and the positive
his family. —A New Hampton student
growth of others.
• Respect and capitalize on authentic relationships.
Total Human Development Education
• View teaching and learning as lifelong passions.
View teaching lifelong At New Hampton, we have come to define a good
Center for the 4th and 5th Rs M Education Department M SUNY Cortland M P.O. Box 2000 M
for Department Cortland .O. Box
Cortland, NY 13045 M Tel. (607) 753-2455 M www.cortland.edu/c4n5rs/ M E-mail: [email protected]
Newsletter Dr. Lick Marthe
Newsletter Staff: Dr. Thomas Lickona, Mar the Seales
school as one that educates the whole person within the LEVELS OF RESPECT
whole community. This vision is reflected in our Mis-
sion Statement (see box, p. 1). 5.0 Communicates very deep concern and caring for
the other person's worth; commits to enabling the other
The whole person includes the intellectual, psycho- person's growth. (Leader)
logical, moral, physical, and spiritual aspects of the per-
4.0 Communicates deep caring and concern for the
son. The whole community includes our academic pro-
other person—who now feels free to open up and experi-
gramming, athletics, arts, community service, and resi-
ence being valued as an individual. (Contributor)
3.0 Expresses adequate acknowledgment of or concern
Guiding our efforts to develop this community is a for the other person's feelings, experience, or poten-
philosophy we call the Total Human Development tial. (Participant)
(THD) model of education. This is a holistic approach
that draws on thinkers such as Kurt Hahn, John Dewey, 2.0 Shows little respect for the feelings, experience,
and Lawrence Kohlberg. The model provides a phi- and potential of the other person. (Observer)
losophy of teaching and learning, a psychology of teach-
1.0 Shows lack of respect; hurts another's feelings.
ing and learning, and programs that translate this phi-
losophy and psychology into practice.
We define responsibility as the action side of respect.
Our Philosophy of Teaching and Learning Responsibility means “the ability to respond.” The fol-
The philosophy of a school provides the foundation lowing is our Leader-Detractor Scale for responsibility:
that guides all the important decisions—including how
people treat each other and how resources such as time LEVELS OF RESPONSIBILITY
and money are allocated. 5.0 Clarifies self's role in being accountable in life,
Central to our philosophy is the idea that learning plus models and teaches a step-by-step process of being
always occurs within the context of a relationship. Re- accountable. (Leader)
search shows that the relationship between the student 4.0 Clarifies own role in situations, plus seeks oppor-
and the teacher or coach impacts learning more than tunities to be responsible/accountable. (Contributor)
any other factor.
3.0 Clarifies own role in being responsible/account-
Also central to our philosophy is the belief that our able in a situation. (Participant)
learning community rests on two universal values:
respect and responsibility. Respect, as defined in 2.0 Assumes responsibility/accountability "because I'm
Educating for Character, means showing regard for the stuck with it." (Observer)
worth of someone or something. It takes three forms:
1.0 Avoids being responsible/accountable. ("Here it
respect for self, respect for others, and respect for all
comes, there I go.") (Detractor)
forms of life and the environment that sustains them.
Our Psychology of Teaching and Learning
We have found it helpful to use a rubric—a “Leader-
How do our students learn the core values of respect
Detractor Scale”—that defines respect and responsi-
and responsibility? Here we draw on insights from three
bility in terms of five levels of behavior. Teachers use
these levels to evaluate students’ efforts in all areas of
school life. A teacher might say to a student, “Are you Social learning theory says that human beings learn
being a 5, or are you being a 1?” If you ask students, through modeling. Students learn by watching their par-
“What does character mean to you?”, they’re likely to ents, teachers, coaches, and each other.
say, “Being a 5 and not a 1.” Parents often report that
they find their children’s rating on this rubric more mean- Behavior learning theory says we learn through con-
ingful then their grades. structive reinforcement, which includes rules, rewards,
and consequences. Rules support the core values. Young
The following is our Leader-Detractor Scale for people need structure and boundaries. The rules of an
respect: athletic game offer a good model to follow because they
New Hampton's Developmental Curriculum
FOCUS: Healthy Habits of Learning. Freshmen focus on becoming respectful and responsible
FRESHMAN students—acquiring the skills of organization and time management, note-taking, word processing,
YEAR writing for communication, reading and writing for pleasure, problem-solving, presentation, speaking,
and interpersonal relations.
FOCUS: Cooperative Learning. Sophomores focus on becoming respectful of other students,
faculty, and their environment—acquiring the skills of doing research, completing group research projects,
defending arguments, reading and writing for content, and collecting and interpreting data.
FOCUS: Independent Learning. Juniors focus on becoming responsible for their own learning—
YEAR acquiring the skills of completing and presenting independent research projects, reading and writing
for critical thinking, investigating multiple frames of reference, and studying for mastery.
FOCUS: Demonstration of Learning. Seniors focus on becoming respectful and responsible
SENIOR through sharing and leading—demonstrating organizational, cooperative, and independent learning
YEAR skills; reading and writing for demonstration of critical thinking; making interdisciplinary connections;
and applying innovative problem-solving.
are clear, consistent, and, ideally, have immediate con- tue and democratic citizenship. All our students are ex-
sequences. pected to give of their time to the community through-
out the academic year. Service projects are wide-rang-
Cognitive-developmental theory says that learning
ing and accommodate varied student interests. Eight Sat-
occurs through respectful dialogue. Dialogue stimulates
urday mornings throughout the fall and spring terms are
thinking and strengthens relationships.
devoted to these service efforts. Students who do not
Our Programs satisfactorily complete their community service commit-
The programs that translate our philosophy and psy- ment are not eligible for promotion to the next grade
chology into practice fall into five areas: academic, lead- level.
ership, co-curricular, service, and residential life. The Sports-Character Connection
Our academic program is developmental, each year Sports are a big part of how we try to develop char-
having a different focus that we think is a good develop- acter at New Hampton. We've been fortunate to earn na-
mental match. The freshman year focuses on acquiring tional recognition for football, basketball, hockey, and
healthy habits of learning; the sophomore year on ac- skiing. But for us, character and winning both matter.
quiring the skills of cooperative learning; the junior year
on acquiring the skills of independent learning; and the You can’t fail here unless you want to. And
senior year on demonstration of learning (see box). yet you are constantly challenged. Over the
Service Learning years, I’ve tried six different arts and five
Service learning can be a transformative experi- different sports.
—A New Hampton student
ence—something that facilitates the crucial developmen-
tal shift from focus on self to focus on others. But com- For example, our athletic department, in collabora-
munity service is sometimes no more than fluff and re- tion with Dr. Matt Davidson, has developed a Coach's
sume-building. If it’s going to have transformative Checklist for Character Development that helps coaches
power, it has to involve sustained face-to-face work with keep values such as respect, responsibility, and teamwork
another human being. That’s the kind of thing that gets in the forefront. (Contact us for a copy.) n
under your skin and stays there.
Beedy is headmaster of New Hampton School, P.O.
At New Hampton, we believe that engaging in mean- Box 579, New Hampton, NH 03256; Tel. (603) 744-
ingful community service cultivates a sense of civic vir- 5401; web site: www.newhampton.org.
Character Education Strategies
From America's Blue Ribbon Schools
Dr. Madonna Murphy
or more than a decade, my research has focused Willy the Sparrow (Pre-K and
on character education practices used in U.S. De- Kindergarten), On Our Own
partment of Education Blue Ribbon Schools. Here (1st-grade), Secret of Treasure
is a sampling of practices from recent award winners: Mountain (2nd-grade), The
Buttercream Gang (3rd-grade), The Rogue Stallion (4th-
Life-Skills Approach to Character Education grade), and Split Infinity (5th-grade).
Both the Belmont School, a K-5 school in Belmont,
Michigan, and the Patterson School, a K-5 school in Character Building
Creating a School Song with WiseSkills
Santa Maria, California, call their character qualities "Life The McCoy School (K-5) in Carrolton, Texas, has
Skills" (after Susan Kovalik's Life Skills). Life Skills in- written its own school song to include the character
clude: caring, common sense, cooperation, courage traits for which the school stands. The song is sung at
curiosity, effort, flexibility, friendship, initiative, integ- the start of each day after the Pledge of Allegiance
rity, problem-solving, patience, perseverance, responsi- and at every assembly and school game. Kathy Struck,
bility, and sense of humor. Patterson School teacher a 5th-grade teacher, wrote the song to the tune of
Annette Taul co-authored Developing Character: "Home, Home, on the Range." ("Oh, give me a school,
A Classroom Approach, a curriculum guide for teaching where integrity is cool, where respect is the name of
the Life Skills at each grade level within science, lan- the game . . .")
guage arts, and social studies. At Belmont, Life Skills
have been integrated into the state learning standards, Parents as First Moral Teachers
especially social studies. West View Elementary believes that parents are the
most important character educators. The school has
Character Traits in a Scope and Sequence parenting workshops at least once a month throughout
West View, a K-5 school located in Spartanburg, the school year. Parent updates on the program are given
South Carolina, began with a list of monthly charac- in the school newsletter every six weeks and in weekly
ter traits but soon found that teaching the same traits classroom newsletters. A Parent Resource Room pro-
each year led students to lose interest. They therefore vides books and other character education material.
adopted the Core Essentials Curriculum
(www.coreessentials.org), a three-year program based Do Dads Club
on teaching 27 different character traits, 9 each year. The dads at Walnut Hill Elementary in Dallas, Texas,
The traits are integrated into lessons and stories. have a "Do Dads Club" that meets regularly to find ways
Teachers use the traits as they work with students to to make a difference in the school. Every other month
develop classroom rules and connect the traits to real they hold a workday to hang curtains, build shelves, re-
life through daily classroom activities. pair furniture, plant trees, lay walkways, and offer a strong
back or a helping hand. All of the things they do model
Character Education at the Movies responsibility and caring. Each Wednesday the school en-
The Belmont School has "film nights" in which chil- joys inspirational messages from one of the "Do Dads,"
dren and parents watch and discuss a character-building reinforcing the curriculum's character qualities.n
film. The school uses quality films with messages of fam- Adapted from Character Education in America's Blue
ily, friendship, truth, trust, or responsibility and the idea Ribbon Schools, 2nd edition. Scarecrow Press (2002),
that character, rather than money or fame, is the most 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706; Phone: 800-
important thing in life. Films include: 462-6420; www.scarecroweducation.com.
Any part of this newsletter may be duplicated without permission.
Any part newsletter may
THE NEED FOR MORE ATTENTION TO Criteria for Promising Practices
HIGH SCHOOL CHARACTER EDUCATION
in H. S. Character Education
• What Works in Character Education, a Char-
acter Education Partnership literature re- Researc validation:
1. Research validation: Scientific study has shown
view, finds "very few schoolwide character the educational practice to be effective; students
education programs at the high school level." who experience this practice are superior on
• With few exceptions, most published char- some character development measure(s) to
acter education books and curricula focus on those who do not experience the practice.
the younger years.
2. Extrapolation from practices validated at the
• There are few rigorous evaluation studies of middle or elementary levels: The promising
middle elementary levels:
high school character education. practice has not yet been empirically evaluated
• High school teachers attend character at the high school level but has been shown to
education conferences in much smaller be effective at earlier levels.
numbers than their elementary and middle differences:
3. Pre-post differences: Students show improve-
school counterparts. ment on some character-related indicator(s) af-
• During the five years of the Character ter experiencing the character education prac-
Education Partnership's National Schools of tice, although there is no comparison group.
Character award competition, there have Relev important
4. Relevance to important adolescent outcomes:
been relatively few high school entries and The practice is relevant to important adolescent
only a handful of high school winners. outcomes (such as sense of purpose, sense of
belonging, moral identity, and avoidance of self-
injurious behaviors such as substance abuse and
High School Project (Cont. from p. 6) sexual activity).
5. Link to factors that mediate character out-
Our national search will include diverse schools: pub- comes: The educational practice fosters a vari-
lic and private; secular and religious; urban, rural, and able, such as sense of community, that has been
suburban; and schools representative of all regions of the shown to mediate positive character outcomes.
country. Our methodology will include a review of the pub-
lished literature, interviews with national experts, interviews Relev challeng
6. Rele vance to c halleng es posed b y high by
schools as institutions: The educational prac-
with practitioners, full site visits to selected schools, and
tice addresses a problem stemming from the
focused visits to other schools. special institutional challenges (e.g., size) posed
When the project’s work is complete, we hope that: by the high school environment.
• In the eyes of educators and the public, the high school 7. External recognition: The practice has gained
will be seen as playing an indispensable role in character external recognition from the Character Educa-
development. tion Partnership's National Schools of Character
program, the U.S. Dept. of Education's Blue Rib-
• A comprehensive vision, supported by a rich range of bon School program, or some other credible edu-
character education practices, will be available to high cational organization.
8. The testimony of practitioners and students:
• High schools will have the tools to evaluate their im- The practice is identified by high school princi-
pact on character. pals, counselors, teachers, students, or gradu-
ates as having a positive impact on the charac-
• Opinion and policy leaders at all levels—federal, state,
ter of students or the character of the school.
and local—will be able to advocate effectively for character
education in the high school. n project's
9. The judgments of our project's National
Exper ts Panel: The practice is recommended
Tom Lickona and Matt Davidson of the Center for the by our panel of experts in adolescent develop-
4th and 5th Rs are conducting the research for the ment, character education, and high school reform.
High School Promising Practices Project.
High School Character Education:
Researching Promising Practices
Tom Lickona and Matt Davidson
he Center for the 4th and Project Goals
5th Rs has been fortunate Our project has three goals:
to receive a John
1. To create an integrated body
Templeton Foundation grant for
of knowledge showing high schools' potential to become
an 18-month project, “Educating for Character in the
schools of character that develop both intellectual and
High School: Researching Promising Practices.”
We'd like to issue an open invitation to anyone who
2. To publish a report—Educating for Character and
may be able to direct us to worthy high school practices,
Community in the High School—that offers a typology
to contact us during our information-gathering period
of promising character-building practices, sets forth Prin-
(January 1 - December 31, 2003; [email protected]
ciples for Effective High School Character Education,
or c4n5rs@cortland[email protected]).
and recommends steps to make this blueprint a reality.
We’ll be using 9 criteria (see box, p. 5) to identify
3. To mount a vigorous national campaign to dissemi-
examples of promising practices—curricular and extra-
nate this report to opinion leaders, government agen-
curricular, classroom and schoolwide, school-based and
cies, leaders in high school education, practitioners, the
community-based—corresponding to our preliminary 17-
media, and the public. (Cont. on p. 5)
part typology (see box below). We are defining charac-
ter to include performance character (achievement-re-
lated virtues such as a strong work ethic, goal-setting, Preliminary Typology:
and perseverance) and moral character (relationship vir- Promising Practices in
tues such as honesty, respect, and democratic citizen- School
High School Character Education
ship). We’d be grateful for your leads concerning work you
are doing or know of: Comprehensive, School-wide Programs
1. Comprehensive, School-wide Programs
School Reform Impro
2. School Reform Practices Aimed at Improving
• Good high schools to visit (even if they don't call eaching
Teaching and Learning
their work "character education")
3. Community-Building Practices
• Programs, classrooms, and practices to observe
4. Discipline Practices
• Practitioners (principals, coaches, counselors,
teachers), theorists, and researchers to interview 5. Curricular Integration Practices
6. Special Character Education Curricula/Courses
• Studies, articles, and books to read
• Curricula to examine. Develop Healthy Lifestyles
7. Practices That Develop Healthy Lifestyles
8. Practices That Address Life Goals and Whole-
The Need Person Development
In the past decade, character education has grown Service
9. Service Learning
into a national movement. Thus far, however, the move- 10. Democratic Education Practices
ment has been overwhelmingly an elementary school phe-
11. Recognition Practices
nomenon with modest progress at the middle school level.
12. Leadership Training Programs
By contrast, intentional character education at the high
school level appears to be relatively rare—at the devel- 13. Extracurricular Activities
opmental stage when the need is arguably the greatest. Development Programs
14. Youth Development Programs
In order to develop the intellectual and ethical potential 15. Parent and Community Par tnerships
Parent Community Partnerships
of adolescents, create safe and caring school communi- Change Manag
16. Educational Change and Management Practices
ties, and reduce teen behaviors that injure self and oth- 17. Character Education Assessment Practices
ers, the high school must embrace character education
as a central part of its mission.
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