• Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq.


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    • Abstract: Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq.Rubiaceaekalempayan, kadam, kaatoan bangkal, jabonLOCAL NAMESBurmese (mau,yemau,maukadon,mau-lettan-she); English (common bur-

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Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq.
Rubiaceae
kalempayan, kadam, kaatoan bangkal, jabon
LOCAL NAMES
Burmese (mau,yemau,maukadon,mau-lettan-she); English (common bur-
flower,New Guinea labula); Filipino (kaatoan bangkal); French (kadam);
Hindi (rudruk-shamba,bale,kola-
aiyila,kodavara,vanji,kadam,attutek,kadamba); Indonesian (kelempajan);
Javanese (jabon); Lao (Sino-Tibetan) (sako,koo-somz,mai sa kho); Malay
(kalempayan,kelampo,kelepayan,ludai,kelempayan); Thai
(krathum,nakhon si tham arrat,sukhothai,chantanaburi,takoo); Trade
name (kalempayan,kadam,kaatoan bangkal,jabon); Vietnamese (g[as]
t[aws]ng,c[aa]y, tom, g[as]o) Anthocephalus cadamba
tree (Rafael T. Cadiz)
BOTANIC DESCRIPTION
Anthocephaluscadamba is a large tree with a broad crown and straight
cylindrical bole. The tree: may reach a height of 45 m with trunk diameters
of 100-(160) cm. The tree sometimes has small buttresses and a broad
crown.
The bark is gray, smooth in young trees, rough and longitudinally fissured
in old trees.
Leaves glossy green, opposite, simple more or less sessile to petiolate,
ovate to elliptical (15-50 x 8-25 cm).
Anthocephalus cadamba
leaves (Rafael T. Cadiz)
Inflorescence in clusters; terminal globose heads without bracteoles,
subsessile fragrant, orange or yellow flowers; Flowers bisexual, 5-merous,
calyx tube funnel-shaped, corolla gamopetalous saucer-shaped with a
narrow tube, the narrow lobes imbricate in bud. Stamens 5, inserted on
the corolla tube, filaments short, anthers basifixed. Ovary inferior, bi-
locular, sometimes 4-locular in the upper part, style exserted and a
spindle-shaped stigma.
Fruitlets numerous with their upper parts containing 4 hollow or solid
structures.
Seed trigonal or irregularly shaped.
A. cadamba is closely allied to the subtribe Naucleinae (Rubiaceae) but
differs from them in its placentation mode. The species is in the focus of a
classification controversy based on the name of the original type
specimen described by Lamarck.
BIOLOGY
Birds and other animals help in dispersal of the edible fruit. At the age of 4
years kadam may start flowering. In Indonesia, flowering starts from April-
August, sometimes from March-November, however, in India flowering
commences from December-July. Flowers are bisexual.
Agroforestry Database 4.0 (Orwa et al.2009) Page 1 of 5
Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq.
Rubiaceae
kalempayan, kadam, kaatoan bangkal, jabon
ECOLOGY
A. cadamba is an early-succession species which grows best on deep, moist, alluvial sites, often in secondary forests
along riverbanks and in the transitional zone between swampy, permanently flooded and periodically flooded areas.
BIOPHYSICAL LIMITS
Altitude: 300-800 m
Mean annual temperature: 23 deg C
Mean annual rainfall: 1 600 m
Soil type: Prefers well drained entisols. Kadam does not grow well on leached and poorly aerated soils.
DOCUMENTED SPECIES DISTRIBUTION
Native: Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam
Exotic: Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, South Africa, Surinam, Taiwan, Province of China, Venezuela
Native range
Exotic range
The map above shows countries where the species has been planted. It does neither
suggest that the species can be planted in every ecological zone within that country,
nor that the species can not be planted in other countries than those depicted. Since
some tree species are invasive, you need to follow biosafety procedures that apply to
your planting site.
Agroforestry Database 4.0 (Orwa et al.2009) Page 2 of 5
The map above shows countries where the species has been planted. It does neither
suggest that the species can be planted in every ecological zone within that country,
nor that the species can not be planted in other countries than those depicted. Since
(Roxb.) Miq.
Anthocephalus cadamba are invasive, you need to follow biosafety procedures that apply to
some tree species
your planting site. Rubiaceae
kalempayan, kadam, kaatoan bangkal, jabon
PRODUCTS
Food: The fruit and inflorescences are reportedly edible.
Fodder: The fresh leaves are fed to cattle.
Apiculture: The fragrant orange flowers attract pollinators.
Timber: Sapwood white with a light yellow tinge becoming creamy yellow on exposure; not clearly differentiated from the
heartwood. The wood has a density of 290-560 kg/cu m at 15% moisture content, a fine to medium texture; straight
grain; low luster and has no characteristic odor or taste. It is easy to work with hand and machine tools, cuts cleanly,
gives a very good surface and is easy to nail. However, the wood is rated as non-durable, graveyard tests in Indonesia
show an average life in contact with the ground of less than 1.5 years. The timber air dries rapidly with little or no
degrade.
Kadamb wood is very easy to preserve using either open tank or pressure-vacuum systems. The timber is used for
plywood, light construction, pulp and paper, boxes and crates, dug-out canoes, and furniture components. Kadamb
yields a pulp of satisfactory brightness and performance as a handsheet. The wood can be easily impregnated with
synthetic resins to increase its density and compressive strength. Kadam is becoming one of the most frequently
planted trees in the tropics.
Tannin or dyestuff: A yellow dye can be obtained from the rooot bark.
Essential oil: Kadam flowers are an important raw material in the production of ‘attar’, which are Indian perfumes with
sandalwood (Santalum spp.) base in which one of the essences is absorbed through hydro-distillation.
Poison: The flowers exhibit slight anti-implantation activity in test animals. Kadam extracts exhibit nematicidal effects
on Meloidogyne incognita.
Medicine: The dried bark is used to relieve fever and as a tonic. An extract of the leaves serves as a mouth gargle.
Other products:
Chlorogenic acid (CGA), isolated from the leaves of A. cadamba screened for hepatoprotective activity in vitro and in
vivo inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver microsomes (Kapil A. et al. 1995).
The alkaloids cadamine and isocadamine are isolated from the leaves of kadam.
SERVICES
Shade or shelter: The tree is grown along avenues, roadsides and villages for shade.
Reclamation: A. kadamba is suitable for reforestation programmes.
Soil improver: Sheds large amounts of leaf and non-leaf litter which on decomposition improve some physical and
chemical properties of soil under its canopy. This reflects in increases in the level of soil organic carbon, cation
exchange capacity, available plant nutrients and exchangeable bases.
Ornamental: Kadam is suitable for ornamental use.
Intercropping: Suitable for agroforestry practices.
Other services:
The tree is highly regarded religiously and culturally in India, Java and Malaysia, ‘the tree’ is sacred to the Lord Krishna.
The fresh leaves are sometimes used as serviettes or plates.
Agroforestry Database 4.0 (Orwa et al.2009) Page 3 of 5
Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq.
Rubiaceae
kalempayan, kadam, kaatoan bangkal, jabon
TREE MANAGEMENT
The tree is a light demander, however the saplings require protection from the hot sun. It is sensitive to frost, drought,
excessive moisture and grazing. The young seedlings are highly susceptible to weeds and should be weeded
regularly. 2-month seedlings can be transplanted in nursery beds or into polythene bags, where they can be retained
before planting at the start of the monsoon rains. To ensure successful establishment, seedlings should be planted out
with their balls of earth. The tree coppices well. The growth of kadam is usually fast for the first 6-8 years. At the age of
10-15 years the trees can be felled.
GERMPLASM MANAGEMENT
The epigeous germination begins in about 10-14 days in the rainy season. Successful extraction of seed from ripe
fruits involves air drying, crushing, and sieving through a No. 35 US Standard sieve to separate seed from chaff. Fruits
are soaked in the open until rotted, ground by hand into a thick slurry, air dried, and passed through a series of sieves
terminating with a No. 35. This procedure improves seed purity up to 98%, and germination success. There are about
900 000-2 700 000 seeds/kg.
PESTS AND DISEASES
The insect, Arthroschista hilalaris attacks kadam. The fungus Scytalidium lignicola is found on living branches of A.
cadamba.
Outbreaks of 'Sudden Death', a disease of unknown aetiology, has been severe in Costa Rica to justify the
abandonment of the planting. The symptoms are typical of a root infection, as the disease occurs in patches and
affected trees show cambial and sapwood staining spreading upwards from the roots. Death of feeding roots is another
early symptom.
The nematodes Meloidogyne javanica, Hemicriconemoides, Tylenchorhynchus and Hoplolaimus are found in
association with the roots of A. cadamba.
The larvae of 5 common species of Scarabaeidae, Euchlora viridis, Holotrichia constricta, H. helleri, Lepidiota stigma
and Leucopholis rorida are polyphagous root pests of kadam.
Agroforestry Database 4.0 (Orwa et al.2009) Page 4 of 5
Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq.
Rubiaceae
kalempayan, kadam, kaatoan bangkal, jabon
FURTHER READNG
Basu SPS and Sukul NC. 1983. Effect of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on the total protein, carbodydrate
and lipid in roots at different growth stages of Hibiscus esculentus. Indian-Journal of Nematology. 13(1): 66-70.
Brown RT, Chapple CL. 1976. Anthocephalus alkaloids: cadamine and isocadamine. Tetrahedron Letters.19: 629-1630.
Gibson IAS and Nylund J. 1976. Sudden death, a disease of Cadam (Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq.).
Commonwealth Forestry Review. 55(165): 219-227.
Gupta DC and Dalal MR. 1973. Meloidogyne javanica associated with Kadam (Anthocephalus cadamba Roxb.).
Pesticides. 7(2) 29.
Intari SE and Natawiria D. 1973. White grubs in forest tree nurseries and young plantations. Laporan, Lembaga-
Penelitian-Hutan, No. 167, 22 pp.
Kapil A, Koul I and Suri OP. 1995. Antihepatotoxic effects of chlorogenic acid from Anthocephalus cadamba.
Phytotherapy Research. 9(3): 189-193.
Misra KK and Jaiswal HR. 1995. Effect of indole butyric acid on the rooting and survival of air layers on some
agroforestry tree species. Indian Journal of Forestry. 18(1): 95-96.
Sharma ND and Singh SR. 1992. Some records of fungi from central India. JNKVV-Research-Journal. 26(2): 47-48.
Soerianegara I, Lemmens RHMJ (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. No. 5(1): Timber trees: major
commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
Varshney MD, Sharma BB and Gupta DN. 1986. Antifertility screening of plants. Part II. Effect of ten indigenous plants
on early and late pregnancy in albino rats. Comparative Physiology and Ecology. 11(4): 183-189.
Venatore CR and Zambrana JA. 1972. Extraction and germination of Kadam seed. USDA Forest Service Research
Note, Institute of Tropical Forestry, Puerto-Rico, No. ITF 14, 2 pp.
SUGGESTED CITATION
Orwa C, Mutua A , Kindt R , Jamnadass R, Simons A. 2009. Agroforestree Database:a tree reference and selection guide
version 4.0 (http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/)
Agroforestry Database 4.0 (Orwa et al.2009) Page 5 of 5


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