• Map 1 … Portsoy and surrounding area


  •   
  • FileName: FINALCPPSettlementSummary30June.pdf [read-online]
    • Abstract: of this route are only suitable for. pedestrian use. 146.0. 7LD.02 ... this route. in the future to Huntly and Inverurie. Some sections of this route are only ...

Download the ebook

Aberdeenshire Core Paths Plan
1st Informal Consultative Draft
(June to September 2008)
Settlement and Route
Information
(for use with Main Consultation
Document/Area and Settlement Maps)
There are a number of proposed Core Paths that extend beyond the boundaries of the
Settlement Maps and/or are routes such as Long Distance Routes that are part of the
proposed Core Paths Network that are not specific to individual settlements. Sections of
proposed Core Paths falling outwith the settlement maps are shown on the Area Maps. The
route information relating to Area Maps is listed below.
Long Distance Routes (Extend over more than one Area)
Path Ref. Path name/route Path description/justification Length
No. (kms)
7LD.01 North Sea Trail - Also known as the NORTRAIL. This 146.0
Coastal Path Coastal Path extends from St Cyrus in
the south up the east coast up to
Fraserburgh and then west to Cullen.
Not all the route is currently in place but
development of this route will continue,
where possible, over the next few years
to create a continuous route round the
coast of Aberdeenshire. Some sections
of this route are only suitable for
pedestrian use.
7LD.02 Deeside Way This route is also currently under 22.0
development and the sections from the
City boundary to Banchory and Aboyne
to Ballater are in place. The current
focus is to identify a route to complete
the missing link between Banchory and
Aboyne. Route is suitable for all user
types.
7LD.03 Formatine and The Formartine and Buchan Way has 84.0
Buchan Way provided an important recreational route
for north east Aberdeenshire for a
number of years. The route runs from
Aberdeen City through Ellon and Maud
where it splits to a route east to
Peterhead and eventually north to
Fraserburgh. At present the section from
Maud to Brucklay Bridge is undeveloped,
awaiting finalisation of agreements with
neighbouring landowners. Route is
suitable for all user types.
7LD.04 Gordon Way The Gordon Way runs west to east 17.0
across central Aberdeenshire from Suie
Hill to the Bennachie Centre at Chapel of
Garioch. It is hoped to extend this route
in the future to Huntly and Inverurie.
Some sections of this route are only
suitable for pedestrian use.
NCN.01 National Cycle This is part of the SUSTRANs Network 178.0
(1 in red Network Route 1 running the length of the East Coast of
square on Scotland.
settlement
maps)
Water Access Points (blue arrows)
Water Access Description Grid Ref Comments
Point
Marr
Dee -Aboyne Opposite Boat Inn north NO 52426 Voluntary code not
east side of the Bridge 98016 to park vehicles in
front of Boat Inn
Dee - Potarch From north east bank NO 60818 Within SSSI
parking in lay-by at 97445 Park in layby to
Potarch Bridge west of bridge
road.
Dee - Banchory From public road north NO 69700 Vehicles tend to
west of Bridge of Dee 95317 park at Scout hut.
Need drop off
point at roadside
and steps from
river.
Feugh - From picnic area NO 64229
Feughside opposite Feughside Inn 92360
on south bank of Feugh
Don - Alford Haughton Country Park NJ 582172 Access via
- South bank caravan site so
drop off craft and
park in Country
Park Car Park
Don - Alford Bridge of Alford North NJ 55947 Access via fishers
west bank from bridge 17118 path
Don - Brux Access just off A944 at NJ 49113 Access via Burn
junction junction with minor road 18512 not Don riverbank
Deveron - From parking area at NJ 48733
Huntly junction of A920 and 40626
Glass road
Deveron - From layby next to NJ 51758
Huntly Gibston Bridge north 40802
west of Huntly
Kin & Mearns
Dee - Park Park Bridge north east NO 79714
of bridge 200m 98338
downsteam via football
park
Garioch
Loch of Skene Access via parking area NJ78515 Permissive use by
at Lodge 08209 Estate
Don - Inverurie From Port Elphinstone NJ 77533
playing field south west 20583
of bridge
Don - From car park NJ 73533
Burnhervie downstream of Shakkin 19017
Brig
Don - Kemnay From Alehousewells NJ 72502
riverside/ 16600
south west of Kemnay NJ 72887
Bridge sewage works 16811
Cross Border Routes
Path Ref. Path Name Area Other LA Comments (if
any)
7CB.01 Crannoch Hill, Banff & Moray Short section
Cullen Buchan requested by
Moray Council to
complete route on
their Plan.
7CB.02 Link from village Garioch City Agreed with City.
to Tyrebagger (CP 1) Blackburn -
[Caskieben] Kirkhill Forest
7CB.03 Westhill to Garioch City Agreed with City.
Aberdeen (cycle (CP 91) Aberdeen
path) Westhill.
7CB.05 Viaduct Montrose Kincardine Angus Crossing viaduct
to St Cyrus & Mearns and joining NCN 1
7CB.06 Edzell to Edzell Kincardine Angus Agreed with Angus
Woods & Mearns Council
7CB.07 Deeside Way, Marr CNPA Extends to Ballater
Aboyne to Dinnet and included in
CNPA Plan
7CB.08 The Burn, Edzell Kincardine Angus Agreed with Angus
& Mearns Council
7CB.09 The Fungle Marr Angus Requested by
Angus and local
community (BCT)
7CB.10 Coastal Path Formartine City City (CP 18) North
Blackdog Sea Trail (North).
7CB.11 Coastal Path Banff & Moray Coastal Path -
Cullen Buchan Cullen
7CB.12 Formartine & Garioch City City (CP 5) F&B
Buchan Way Way
Information relating to
Area Maps
This section details routes that are only found on the Area Maps and also highlights
settlements that are lacking in proposed Core Paths or have aspirational routes listed
in Section 5 of the main Consultation Document.
The population allocations are based 2006 Local Plan figures and so it is appreciated that
due to the extent of new housing development in Aberdeenshire in recent years these
figures will be dated.
Buchan Area
Auchnagatt (Population 108). A former station village, Auchnagatt is conveniently
situated on the Formartine and Buchan Way within easy cycling distance of Maud and Ellon.
However, short circular path routes are lacking, and it is hoped to explore this possibility
further in the near future.
Forest of Deer Paths - The paths in Forest of Deer lie between Mintlaw, Fetterangus and
Strichen, and have the potential to contribute to links between these communities, as well as
being popular routes in their own right. Parts of these routes can be found on Map 16
Mintlaw and Fetterangus
Forest of Deer: Proposed Core Paths
Path Ref. Path name/route Path description/justification Length
No. (kms)
205.02 Drinnie's & Loudon Southerly loop with access to 3.8
Woods Observatory and stone circle
205.03 Race course Link to White Cow Wood 4.4
205.04 White Cow Wood Circular route with car park 5.3
Rattray: Proposed Core Path
Path Ref. Path name/route Path description/justification Length
No. (kms)
203.02 Old Rattray Link on quiet road from St Mary's 0.6
Chapel Car Park to revised route of
Coastal Path
Maud: Proposed Core Path
Path Ref. Path name/route Path description/justification Length
No. (kms)
209.01 Clackriach path Link to Formartine and Buchan Way 1.0
creating circular route
Formartine Area
Tipperty (Population 154) is a settlement that is unfortunately split by the A90 and is
surrounded by agricultural land. The Community Council have been consulted but to date no
routes have been identified for this settlement.
Ythanbank (Population 120) is a linear settlement to the north east of Ellon there is a
range of informal routes in the area and the community have been active in creating a picnic
area at the riverside where the footbridge crosses the River Ythan.
Ythanbank - Proposed Core Paths
Path Ref. Path name/route Path description/justification Length
No. (kms)
316.01 Bridge link to The key to this route is the footbridge 0.5
Craigmuir Wood over the River Ythan that links the
settlement with Craigmuir Wood and
on to Haddo Country Park.
Garioch Area
The key commuter settlements of Blackburn, Kintore and Inverurie are connected through a
chain of linear routes and each are catered with a circular proposal. Kemnay links into this
network on the Old Kemnay Road at Port Elphinstone. A proposed connection of the three
smaller settlements of Old Rayne, Durno and Whiteford provide further integration of path
networks across Garioch.
Bennachie provides a rich wider network of paths for users with proposed Core Path entry
points at Auchleven and Oyne, each of which are also provided with at least one circular
path proposal, whilst the Gordon Way links Bennachie into Marr.
There is a further aspiration for a link with Aberdeen City, as route 7CB.04 between Westhill
and CP 34 Brimmond Paths.
No paths were identified in Sauchen at the time of publication but there are ongoing
investigations over links between Sauchen and Cluny School.
The path from Comers to Midmar Primary (413.01) does not appear on any of the detailed
maps but provides a link between a settlement and school and provides a starting point for
burnside walks.
Proposed Core Paths Long distance and not covered in other maps
Path Ref. Path name/route Path description/justification Length
No. (kms)
413.01 Comers to Midmar Route between settlement of Comers 0.87
Primary and Midmar School. Part constructed
track and part tarmac. Would
facilitate access to paths along the
side of the burn. Suitable for multiuse
and suitable for all abilities in part.
Kincardine and Mearns Area
Catterline (Popualtion 115) A small conservation village lying on the coast between
Stonehaven and Inverbervie. Continuation of the long distance promoted coastal path north
and south of the village is apirational
Catterline - Proposed Core Paths
Path Ref. Path name/route Path description/justification Length
No. (m)
502.01 Harbour Road Quiet road from cliff top village to 285
harbour
Roadside of Kinneff - (Popualtion 168) A small settlement on the main A92 Stonehaven to
Montrose road. No routes were identified during the 2006 consultation process and none
have been identified to date. Provision of a safe route to the primary school to the east is
aspirational.
Information relating to
Settlement Maps
Banff and Buchan
Map 1 Portsoy and surrounding area
This area is dominated by the coast to the north and agricultural land inland. Of the settlements on
this map, Portsoy is the largest (pop.1678) while Sandend (pop.266) and Fordyce (pop. 149) are
considerably smaller.
The proposed core paths for Portsoy and Sandend are dominated by coastal routes as these are
the most popular and heavily used. In Portsoy the old railway line is also popular and provides an
alternative through agricultural land. Sandend has a large sandy beach which is a popular
attraction and also provides good access to the sea for surfers and kayakers. Fordyce is 1 miles
inland and the route proposed here links the village to the coast in the north.
Durn Hill is a prominent feature lying between Portsoy and Fordyce. There is an informal access
from the Portsoy side of the hill however there is no link from there over to Fordyce so a longer
term project would be to develop this.
Proposed Core Paths
Path Ref. Path Path description/justification Length
No. name/route (kms)
7LD.01 Coastal Path This is part of the Aberdeenshire Coastal Path. This See long
section links Portsoy and Sandend with Cullen (in Distance
Moray). Managed by the Council, it is a very popular Routes
tourism resource. Although small sections are
suitable for all abilities, overall it is ideally only
suitable for walkers.
105.01 Fordyce - Route through agricultural land linking Fordyce to the 2.76
Sandend coast. Follows a right of way in part, then other
existing tracks. Part maintained by the Council.
Provides alternative off road link between the
villages.
113.01 Portsoy railway Existing paths along old railway line. Suitable in part 1.67
line for all abilities.
7CB.01 Crannoch Hill This has been included at the request of Moray 0.75
Council as it is a small section of a route in their area
which is being proposed as a Core Path.
7LD.01 Coastal Path to New path required between Boyne Bay and
(new) Whitehills Whitehills. Agreement in place with landowner.
Map 2 Banff & Macduff
The population of Banff is 3831and Macduff is slightly smaller with a population of 3744.
Access in this area is concentrated on the coast, which is the main attraction. Walks inland from
Duff House are also well used and Temple of Venus on Hill of Doune is also a popular focal point
for visitors and locals. The beach at Boyndie Bay (between Banff and Whitehills) provides good
access to the sea for surfing and kayaking. The suggested Core Paths for this area are a mixture of
coastal and woodland routes
Currently there is no coastal path link between Macduff and Gardenstown. It is proposed to start
investigating the feasibility of developing this.
Proposed Core Paths
Path Ref. Path Path description/justification Length
No. name/route (kms)
102.01 Bridge of Alvah This is a very popular route from Duff House which 7.09
circular, Banff passes through woodland and agricultural land and
is also part of a network of paths within the Wrack
Woodlands. It largely comprises constructed track,
with some sections of tarmac and a section of grass
track. It is suitable for multi-use and much of it would
be suitable for all-abilities although some steep
gradients and sections of loose stony surface may
restrict this.
102.02 Lusylaw This provides a sheltered network of walks at the 1.15
Woods, Banff highest part of Banff which links with quiet minor
roads. The paths are unsurfaced which may make
them difficult for all abilities use.
108.01 Hill of Doune, The Temple of Venus on top of Hill of Doune is a key 1.4
Macduff focal point in Banff and Macduff. The routes here are
popular recreational routes, but also provide an
alternative, off-road link between the two towns. The
paths are unsurfaced and some sections are very
steep which may restrict access.
108.02 Barnhill, This links Macduff with the A947, and also link with 0.9
Macduff the Hill of Doune routes. It comprises some grassy,
unsurfaced paths as well as sections of made up
track. Although sections can be soft and wet in
winter it is suitable for multi-use and has the potential
to be an all ability route with some work.
118.01 West End, This right of way comprises an aggregate surfaced 0.65
Whitehills track which was upgraded by the community. It is
currently used as a recreational route, but will also
form part of the cycleway link to the Ladysbridge
development.
7LD.01 Coastal Path This is part of the Aberdeenshire Coastal Path and See long
links Banff with Whitehills. This section is made up of Distance
stretches of old railway line, tarmac and some Routes
sections of constructed track. It is a popular
recreational route which is suitable for multi-use and
for all abilities. It also provides a safe off-road
commuter link between the two settlements.
7LD.01 Coastal Path to New path required between Boyne Bay and
(new) Whitehills Whitehills. Agreement in place with landowner.
Map 3 Gardenstown & surrounding area
This area is characterised by settlements tucked in at the base of steep cliffs, with agricultural land
inland. Gardenstown is the largest of the settlements in this area with a population of 753. The
small village of Crovie faces Gardenstown across Gamrie Bay while New Aberdour (pop. 329), to
the east, is within an agricultural area.
The presence of the steep cliffs makes the development of routes from these settlements very
difficult. As a result the routes are largely at the top of the cliffs through agricultural land, but with
stunning views of the coastline. The small village of Pennan (pop. 98) is a significant visitor
attraction and the coastal path link between Pennan and New Aberdour has been included as a
potential Core Path However it is surrounded by very steep cliffs which has made the identification
of additional routes impossible. The new RSPB Reserve at Troup Head is also becoming a
significant visitor attraction and links to this require some work.
Currently there is no coastal path link between Macduff and Gardenstown. It is proposed to start
investigating the feasibility of developing this as a long term project. Both Cullykhan and the RSPB
reserve at Troup Head are popular places for visitors. Developing a link between these two points
would also fill in part of a missing section of the coastal path.
Proposed Core Paths
Path Ref. Path Path description/justification Length
No. name/route (kms)
107.01 The Sneuk This route links the village of Crovie with 0.64
Gardenstown. It comprises made up path (aggregate
and concrete sections) and a section across shingle
beach. In winter it can provide the only access
between the two settlements.
107.02 Five Farms This route was developed by the community as a 4.77
recreational route. Part of it can be used as a safe
off-road link to the RSPB reserve at Troup Head. It is
suitable for multi-use although some very steep
sections may make it difficult for all abilities use.
110.01 Mains of New This short track provides an alternative link from New 1.01
Aberdour Aberdour to the coast. Although it takes people on to
a public road it is a very quiet road with little traffic. It
is suitable for multi-use and has the potential to be
suitable for all-abilities.
7LD.01 Coastal Path This right of way forms part of the Aberdeenshire See long
Coastal Path and links the settlements of Pennan Distance
and New Aberdour. Much of it is on farm tracks with Routes
a short section along the side of a field.
7LD.01 Coastal Path There is an informal path along the coast from
(new) Dundarg Castle to Rosehearty. Some sections are
maintained by the farmers under the Land
Management Contract Menu Scheme. Work is
required to negotiate the agreement of owners to
upgrade this as a coastal path.
Map 4 Rosehearty & Sandhaven
The settlements on this map are on the coast and this is largely reflected in the proposed Core
Paths. Rosehearty (pop. 1169) and Sandhaven (pop. 770) are both medium sized villages on the
coast, with agricultural land to the south. The proposed Core Paths predominantly comprise links
between the two settlements, along the coastal path.
Proposed Core Paths
Path Ref. Path Path description/justification Length
No. name/route (kms)
115.01 Cairnhill This route is the only way to the village war 0.67
memorial, making it a key route for this settlement. It
comprises predominantly surfaced farm track, with a
short, narrow section of grass path. It is suitable for
multi-use and has the potential to be an all-abilities
route.
117.01 Corn Roadie This route provides provides access around the 0.76
landward side of Sandhaven and links with minor
public roads. It is made up of stone/gravel track, with
sections of tarmac and is suitable for multi-use.
7LD.01 Coastal Path This is part of the Aberdeenshire Coastal Path and See Long
links Rosehearty and Sandhaven to Fraserburgh. Distance
This section is along the roadside path beside the Routes
B9031. Some parts have been upgraded to shared
walkway/cycleway standard.
7LD.01 Coastal Path There is an informal path along the coast from
(new) Dundarg Castle to Rosehearty. Some sections are
maintained by the farmers under the Land
Management Contract Menu Scheme. Work is
required to negotiate the agreement of owners to
upgrade this as a coastal path.
Map 5 Fraserburgh & St Combs
Fraserburgh is the largest settlement within the Banff and Buchan area with a population of 11974
and has the sea to the north and east. There are three major roads radiating out from the town
making it very difficult to identify routes and links that do not involve crossing or using the roads.
However the Formartine and Buchan Way multi-user route to Peterhead and Aberdeen starts in
Fraserburgh, and Fraserburgh Bay comprises a 2 mile stretch of sandy beach and dunes system,
which is a valuable asset for the town. The bay is also very popular for surfing.
To the east lie the small villages of Cairnbulg, Inverallochy (joint pop. 1334) and St Combs. The
Core Paths for these are concentrated on the coast as this is the principal attraction.
It has not been possible at this stage to find links to the countryside west/southwest of Fraserburgh.
However, in the longer term any development proposals in this area will be used to try and ensure
that links are developed. The Fraserburgh dunes/beach and the Formartine & Buchan Way are
both key access areas for Fraserburgh. Currently it is not possible to link the two apart from at
Fraserburgh itself.
Proposed Core Paths
Path Ref. Path Path description/justification Length
No. name/route (kms)
106.01 Philorth House This links the Formartine and Buchan Way to the 1.41
roadside pavement next to the A90 and provides a
good circular walk from Fraserburgh. The route has
a good hard surface and, being largely flat, has the
potential to be suitable for all-abilities.
106.02 Watermill This right of way provides a useful link from the west 0.31
side of Fraserburgh to the coastal path and
Sandhaven. It comprises a firm grass surface over
stone.
7LD.01 Coastal Path This is part of the Aberdeenshire Coastal Path and See long
links Fraserburgh to Cairnbulg/ Inverallochy and then Distance
to St Combs. Part of this route is an unmade path Routes
through the sand dunes, the remainder is stone track
and tarmac. There are a couple of missing sections
within Fraserburgh, however these are the subject of
planning applications and are likely to be in place
within the period of this plan. There have been
requests from the community for a bridge across the
Philorth at a former fording point. This route has not
been included in the plan as no path/bridge currently
exists and it is unlikely to be resolved during the
period of this plan. Routes from Fraserburgh and
Cairnbulg to the Philorth are included. There is an
existing bridge crossing at the B9033 which can be
reached via a former railway line.
Map 6 Rathen and Memsie
This is predominantly an agricultural area with a scattering of hamlets and several small
settlements. Of these Rathen and Memsie are the largest. Access opportunities for these
settlements are limited due to the major roads that adjoin or pass through them.
Memsie (pop. 154) is on a crossroads with two busy roads, which limits safe access opportunities
that don't require the installation of new roadside paths. The proposed link to Sinclairhills/Witch-hill
gives a safe area for access, and in the much longer term could form part of a safe off-road link to
Fraserburgh, although this would require a considerable amount of work.
Rathen (pop. 94) is located next to the A92, which limits access opportunities to the west. The
routes proposed are from the east/north-east of the village to provide a link to the Formartine and
Buchan Way.
Proposed Core Paths
Path Ref. Path Path description/justification Length
No. name/route (kms)
109.01 Sinclairhills This route provides a link from Memsie to 1.48
Sinclairhills/Witch-hill, and gives safe access to a
wider network of paths within these woods. It
comprises a grass/stone track and would be suitable
for multi-use.
114.01 Gallows Hill This track gives safe off-road access from Rathen 1.62
towards the Formartine and Buchan Way. A short
stretch of minor public road is also used. The
majority of the route is a sand/stone farm track, part
of which is currently maintained under the Land
Management Contract Menu Scheme.
114.02 Hill of This route would provide a more direct link to the
(new) Concraigs Formartine and Buchan Way from Rathen. There is
evidence of this route on the ground; however it is
impassable in sections due to gorse which would
require to be cleared or bypassed. Sections of this
route are maintained under the Land Management
Contract Menu Scheme.
Map 7 Aberchirder and Cornhill
This is an agricultural area of farms and crofts with relatively few settlements. Aberchirder (pop.
1103) and Cornhill (pop. 228) are the only settlements of any size within this area. Although they
are surrounded by agricultural land, both communities have woodland adjoining them, and the
suggested Core Paths are therefore concentrated in this as it provides safe off-road access.
The Moss Road in Aberchirder is a historic route where access is now difficult. The community are
keen to see this re-opened, however Aberchirder already has good access opportunities and there
are other settlements nearby with virtually no routes available so this has to be a lower priority.
Proposed Core Paths
Path Ref. Path Path description/justification Length
No. name/route (kms)
101.01 Cleanhill This is a mature woodland owned by the Council, 1.8
Woods however there is significant community involvement
in its management and up keep. It is a very popular
area, particularly for walkers although it does also
get some equestrian use.
101.02 Little Haven/ This is a young plantation next to village which is 2.21
Quarryhill very well used by locals. Currently maintained under
the Land Management Contract Menu Scheme, and
was previously included in the Forestry Commission
"Walkers Welcome" scheme. The paths within the
wood are unsurfaced, being strimmed routes.
Several soft boggy areas may not make this a
suitable route for horses in wet conditions.
104.01 Silverhillocks, Owned by Cornhill Community Association this 1.03
Cornhill woodland contains very basic earth paths. There is
some evidence of work to create burn crossings,
however the area is in need of work to upgrade and
improve the paths and create a better facility for the
village.
Map 8 New Byth & Cuminestown
These settlements are within an area dominated by agriculture. Their layout in relation to the main
roads coming in to them makes safe access to the countryside more difficult.
At New Byth (pop. 247) there are no particular areas such as woodlands or railway lines where
access is generally taken. As a result the routes proposed largely utilise quiet farm tracks near to
the village. An old track within the village, which has become overgrown, is also suggested.
Cuminestown (pop. 432) to Garmond is considered the most important link to establish as a Core
Paths options are to use quiet roads and shelter belts of Auchray Home Farm. The Sustrans
National Cycle Network runs through the village.
Proposed Core Paths
Path Ref. Path Path description/justification Length
No. name/route (kms)
111.01 Blackhill, New This route is largely on farm tracks, with a short 2.62
Byth section along the side of a field. It provides a good
recreational loop from New Byth
111.02 Redburn, New A longer loop from the village, this route comprises 2.14
Byth quiet minor public road and farm tracks. It provides
very good views over the village
111.03 New Byth This is a short route around the outskirts of the 0.48
Village village. The track is currently overgrown with
vegetation, however it could be brought back into
usable condition relatively easily and has the
potential to be an all-ability route due to the easy
gradient.
303.01 Cuminestown to Part of this route uses existing tracks through 1.0 plus
(new) Garmond Auchray Home Farm linked by minor road from new
Cuminestown however to establish the complete section
route a new section of path will need to be
established along the public road to Garmond
NCN.01 National Cycle The section from Maud to Turriff that passes through See Long
Network Route Cuminestown is all on-road Distance
1 Routes
Buchan
Map 9 New Pitsligo
Population 1033. One of the larger historic "planned villages" of the north-east. Scope for minor
improvements to existing, well-established recreational paths network which affords views of the
surrounding countryside of hills, fields and woodlands.
Proposed Core Paths
Path Ref. Path Path description/justification Length
No. name/route (kms)
213.01 Turlundie Pleasant circular trackway round Turlundie Hill on 1.8
west side of village with good views and three
access points from village.
213.02 Den path Tarred path crossing wooded den near the centre of 0.25
the village. Links two parts of village.
213.03 Duncan's Brae Interconnected trackways linking with east


Use: 0.3235