• WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on COMMUNICATIONS Ming-Shen Jian, Ta-Yuan Chou, Shu Hui Hsu


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    • Abstract: WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on COMMUNICATIONS Ming-Shen Jian, Ta-Yuan Chou, Shu Hui HsuRFID Encryption/Decryption Technology Aided Multimedia andData Intellectual Property Protection 

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WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on COMMUNICATIONS Ming-Shen Jian, Ta-Yuan Chou, Shu Hui Hsu
RFID Encryption/Decryption Technology Aided Multimedia and
Data Intellectual Property Protection 
MING-SHEN JIAN+, TA-YUAN CHOU#, SHU HUI HSU!
+
Department of Computer Science and Engineeing, National Formosa University, Yunlin, Taiwan
#
Department of Computer Science and Engineeing, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung,
Taiwan
!
International Megatrend Smart Technology Ltd., BVI.
[email protected]+, [email protected]#, [email protected]!
Abstract: - In this paper, a RFID Encryption/Decryption Technology Aided Multimedia and Data  Intellectual 
Property  Protection is proposed. The encryption code for each multimedia or data is embedded in the existing
encryption algorithm. Furthermore, the unique ID of RFID tag can guarantee the legality of each RFID tag. Two
types of RFID tag is implemented for multimedia/digital content and normal user. The encryption code is
recorded and locked in the data slot of RFID tag which embedded in the digital content storage hardware. Only
normal user provides the corect RFID tag with legal key for unlocking thedata slot, he encryption code can be
gained. The verification shows the proposed technology is realistic and only users who have the legal RFID tag
can gain the digital multimedia content.
Key-Words: - RFID, Multimedia, Intellectual Property, Digital Label, System Integration.
1 Introduction adopt software encryption as the identifications to
RFID today is the popular wireless induction system protect the intellectual property of the applications or
[5-7, 11-13]. Each RFID tag in RFID system is given files. Considering the serious situations of pirate,
a unique ID (UID) which records the on demand intellectual property protection is important and
information. When an independent RFID tag becomes a famous issue.
approaches the RFID antenna, the induction between Password protection is the popular encryption
RFID tag and antenna happens. The information and method to protect the applications. Each application
content recorded in the tag is transmitted to the RFID or file of software is assigned an on demand given
antenna and translated into the computational data. serial numbers or calculation function. People who
Following up the data translation, the tag recognition use this application have to input the correct serial
can be completed and related applications are number then enable the application.
provided. Considering today’s applications, personal
Due to the popularity of RFID, many local or multimedia services or software applications are
small area wireless applications were proposed. The popular. Customers use the personal multimedia
RFID tags were proposed to be used in hospital or devices such as MP3, PDA, iPod, Laptop, etc., to
health care [2-4,18]. Patients should always wear the download the multimedia or application files from
RFID tag is designed for identification. The patient’s the server or website via Internet. In other words,
current location and condition is monitored every many files or data are disseminated and exchanged
time and everywhere within the hospital. It means via Internet. In addition, many hackers can crash the
that patients are under cared even an emergency state software encryption with fewer costs (Only program
happens. Some entrance guard systems are also based tools or applications needed). It makes that the
on RFID system. The RFID ticket or RFID card [5-7, piratical files are transmitted widely and the
12] is used to identify that a user is legal or not. protection of intellectual property exists in name
According to the short-distance wireless signal, the only.
RFID tag users can be monitored within the specific For the purpose that the right of intellectual
area. In other words, the RFID systems are generally property and the right of the valid users are further
used to be the hardware identification in many protected and maintained, integration of the software
applications. and hardware encryption is needed. Since each RFID
In opposition to using the RFID system as the tag with a unique ID (UID) which records the on
hardware identification, many software applications demand information can be used as the individual
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identification, the small and cheap RFID tag can be 2) the Encryption/Decryption procedure consists of
considered as the hardware/software software code/decode and hardware key
encryption/decryption key corresponding to the files induction which can be embedded in the existed
or applications. systems or devices. Considering the
Some researches presented that the embedding implementation, three possible procedures are
RFID can be plugged into a small device such as proposed in this paper.
handheld host [1]. The handheld device users can 3) only the legal user can gain/decrypt and
plug in the SD or CF interface of reader card. Hence, execute/play the digital content. The digtal
the users can scan and induct the RFID tag content is protected by two stages: 1. encryption
everywhere. In other words, to integrate the RFID code, and 2. The key serial number for unlocking
system hardware into the mobile devices is the data slot which records the encryption code.
practicable. Furthermore, the RFID system including 4) different types of RFID such as size, frequency,
RFID induction antenna, RFID parser and reader, even appearance can be selected and designed.
RFID tag, etc., today is cheap. Some RFID tag such The concept of E/DonRFID including multimedia
as ticket or card cost only about $. In addition, the player, RFID, and user can be shown as the Fig. 1.
RFID hardware including antenna and reader is not
only cheap but also can be a PnP device []. It means
that the RFID hardware can be used as a normal user
device such as the card-reader.
Since the RFID systems are popular and ripe for
distinguishing treatment of individual target [8,9],
the unique characteristic or identification of RFID
can be the solution of intellectual property protection.
Many researches proposed the possible way to
protect the intellectual property, products, or
applications. In some applications [10], the RFID
chips are embedded in the cap of bottle. The
medicine can be differentiated between fake and true.
In addition, the RFID chip can be placed in the CD or
DVD disk. The CD-ROM can accesses and reads the
information of the RFID for valid identification
check. Only the CD or DVD with the authorized Figure 1. The concept of E/DonRFID multimedia
RFID can be played. Although the content is player
protected, the self-made content that burned in the
CD-R/RW or DVD-R/RW may not provide the The remainder of this paper is organized as
authorized RFID information. In other words, the follows. In Section 2, the proposed RFID
private, non-business, or free digital content made by Encryption/Decryption Technology Aided
the individual may be limited and cannot be Multimedia and Data  Intellectual  Property 
transmitted free. In addition, even the CD or DVD Protection system and the procedure of
disks are protected, the digital content such as files or Encryption/Decryption are presented. The real states
data still can be copied from the disk to other devices and implementations of using E/DonRFID are shown
such as hard disc or MP3 player. Therefore, how to in Section 3. At last, the conclusion is given in
separate the right of the digital content for each user Section 4.
and how to protect the digital content from illegal use
become the important issues.
In this paper, a realistic application, RFID 2 RFID Encryption/Decryption
Encryption/Decryption Technology Aided Technology Aided Multimedia and
Multimedia and Data Intellectual Property Data Intellectual Property Protection
Protection (E/DonRFID), is proposed. By using the Due to the demand of existed system integration, the
E/DonRFID, proposed RFID Encryption/Decryption Technology
1) each digital content such as a multimedia file or Aided Multimedia and Data Intellectual Property
an application, or a set of files or applications, Protection includes: PnP Middleware, RFID
can be protected by specific and different RFID Hardware, End User RFID Device and End User
tag, RFID Tag, and Encryption/Decryption Procedure.
The system framework is shown as Figure 2. The
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PnP Middleware is the main application to manage may equip the RFID tag. The unique ID (UID) of the
the connections and requirements from End User storage is used to provide the information for
RFID Device and End User RFID Tag. The PnP identifying that this storage hardware is valid or not.
Middleware also provides the RFID API and parser Since the RFID tag embedded in the hardware is not
to communicate with the third party RFID Hardware. re-writable, the UID for each RFID tag can be on
Furthermore, after gaining the encryption code, the demand assigned individually. In other words, each
PnP Middleware also provides the code for user’s storage hardware can be equipped a different and
application such as multimedia player via software unique ID for legitimate rights proof of user. In
API. addition, the secured field of RFID tag can also
For a normal user, there are two types of RFID provide the information such as decryption key. In
devices for the E/DonRFID system: End User RFID other words, to decode or decrypt the digital content,
Device for digital content or multimedia information In this paper, the hardware which stores the
gaining, and End User RFID Tag for indentifying the encrypted digital content, or equips the RFID tag, or
legal user. further equips both, is called End User RFID Device.
In opposition to End User RFID Device,
according to possible states of encryption method,
the end user must have the decryption key for
executing and obtaining the encrypted digital content.
In this paper, the hardware (RFID tag) which records
the decryption key is called End User RFID Tag.
Figure 3. The sample of End User RFID Tag
After identifying the End User RFID Device,
the end user has to provide the End User RFID Tag
for the Embedded Service Middleware Application.
Only the information or password of End User RFID
Figure 2. The framework of RFID Tag is correct and can be used to gain the secured
Encryption/Decryption Technology Aided decryption key which recorded in the End User RFID
Multimedia and Data Intellectual Property  Device, the digital content recorded in the End User
Protection RFID Device can be presented. In this paper, the End
User RFID Device/Tag key for encryption and
In this paper, E/DonRFID not only provides the decryption can be presented as Figure 4.
RFID based protection procedure but also includes
the Encryption/Decryption method based on RFID
character. The encryption and decryption can be
implemented by hardware or software solution. The
original digital data is encrypted by 1) hardware, 2)
software, or 3) combination of hardware and
software. Corresponding to the encryption method,
suitable RFID tag of user for decrypting is needed.
2.1 End User RFID Facilities
For the end users, two possible facilities: End User
RFID Tag and End User RFID Device are proposed
in the paper.
For example, the encrypted digital content is
recorded in the storage hardware such as CD-ROM Figure 4. The framework of End User RFID
disk or Flash Memory Disk. The storage hardware Device and End User RFID Tag
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commercial RFID tag can be embedded into the disk
2.2 Possible Encryption Method when the disk is made. According to the
Since three possible ways to protect the digital characteristic of RFID tag, each RFID tag can be set
content are proposed above, for the end users, there with different individualities. In other words, the
will be at least five possible states and method of owner of the digital content can input the monopoly
E/DonRFID, to gain the protected digital data, shown security identification mark such as security code,
as follows: password, etc. into the RFID tag. These RFID tag
1. Encryption and Decryption by Hardware and embedded in the storage hardware is not rewritable.
Software combination, Therefore, different digital content can be assigned
2. Encryption only by Hardware with Hardware different encryption code, RFID unique ID.
and Software combination Decryption Furthermore, the information of the digital content or
3. Encryption only by Software with Hardware authentication serial number can be also recorded in
and Software combination Decryption the RFID tag. Hence, different disks equip the
4. Encryption only by Hardware with Hardware different IDs, information, and data of RFID tag. In
Decryption other words, the digital content that recorded in the
5. Encryption only by Software with Hardware storage device (such as CD-ROM disk) can be
Decryption secured.
In addition to UID of RFID tag, each RFID tag
provides the secured field via limited memory. Only
when the user has the correct password the
information secured in the RFID memory can be
gained. Therefore, some information for encryption
and decryption, such as decryption key or coding, can
be also secured in the RFID tag.
Encryption Method 2: since the content or data
are digital, these software, content or data, can be
encrypted as the secret codes or cipher. The digital
content such as multimedia is transferred to coded
digital data, or locked/secured by the on demand
password or coding method. Without the specific key
or password, these secret codes or ciphers cannot be
recovered as the original data.
2.3 Corresponding Decryption Method
When the storage hardware with RFID tag is
inserted into the reader, the embedded RFID reader
will induct the RFID tag of the storage hardware. The
information about this storage can be scanned and
read.
No matter the digital data is encoded or encrypted
via using hardware or software, the corresponding
key or password is needed. The decryption key can
Corresponding to the encryption methods, normal be recorded in the RFID tag embedded in the storage
users have to provide the correct security key or a palm RFID tag (such as a RFID toy). To gain the
information for data decryption. Due to the possible digital content, according to the possible encryption
encryption / decryption method, the digital data may method, end users have to provide or use the
need the hardware, software, or both for decryption. corresponding encryption hardware or software.
In other words, a user has to provide the Decryption Method 1- Encryption by Hardware
corresponding RFID tag or adopt the corresponding with only Hardware Decryption: the End User RFID
RFID application which matches the requirements Device equips the RFID tag. In addition, only the
for gaining the data recorded in the End User RFID hardware for decryption is needed. The end user
Device. should own a corresponding End User RFID Tag.
Encryption Method 1: via using hardware. When the end user wants to read or obtain the digital
Depending on the End User RFID Device such as content, the hardware, corresponding/valid End User
CD-ROM disk or Flash Memory Disk, the
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RFID Tag, should be inducted. Then, the digital After receiving the signal, the RFID Reader
content can be obtained and decrypted. translates the signal into the digital data such as the
If the decryption code is protected and recorded in UID of this RFID tag. Then, the RFID Reader sends
the End User RFID Device, the password to unlock the digital data to the corresponding systems or
the memory of RFID tag in End User RFID Device is applications.
needed. The end user has to provide the End User However, according to the Possible Encryption
RFID Tag which records the password. Then, the Method to protect the digital content, when the
decryption key/code can be used to decrypt the protection is based on RFID Encryption/Decryption
digital content or data. Technology Aided Multimedia and Data  Intellectual 
Decryption Method 2- Encryption by Software Property  Protection, it means that there is a RFID
with only Hardware Decryption: as the decryption tag as the hardware key or lock embedded in the
method 1, the end user should own a corresponding storage of the digital content. Corresponding to the
End User RFID Tag. The device which records the Decryption Method and the types of the storage,
encrypted digital data may not equip the RFID tag. suitable decryption hardware is needed. For example,
The data is encrypted with the specific key/code. if a tag is embedded in the CD-ROM disk, the user
Hence, when the user tries to obtain the content, the should have a CD-ROM with the RFID Hardware
user has to provide the End User RFID Tag. when reading the disk. Hence, in this paper,
When the encrypted data is read, due to the Hardware Integration for Induction is used to induct
Intellectual Property Protection, the user should the RFID tag of the storage.
provide the corresponding End User RFID Tag. The
specific RFID tag will be inducted be the RFID Hardware Integration for Induction
Hardware. Then the information such as encryption Due to that the digital content is protected by the
code will be gained from the End User RFID Tag for RFID tag embedded in the hardware, the information
the application (ex. Media player). recorded in the tag has to be inducted before using.
After identifying the information recorded in the The general used as the multimedia storage or
RFID tag or the password, users who provide the hardware can be CD, VCD/DVD, memory disk/card,
correct RFID tag or password can gain the data. or flash memory. Most storage needs the
Therefore, only the digital storage or content with the corresponding reader such as CD-ROM or Card
valid RFID tag can be decrypted. Reader. To enable the RFID Encryption/Decryption
Since the digital content is encrypted and Technology Aided Multimedia and Data Intellectual
recorded in the hardware, to read or gain the data Property Protection, these corresponding readers
from the storage, the corresponding reader is needed. must equip the RFID Antenna and RFID Reader. In
In the following sections, the detail procedure of this paper, the reader that can induct the RFID tag of
decryption will be presented. the storage is called the Hardware Integration for
Induction.
2.4 RFID Hardware However, not all the storage equips the RFID tag.
Considering that the five possible states of possible In other word, the storage not only with but also
encryption method in the proposed RFID without RFID tag is available and should be readable
Encryption/Decryption Technology Aided via a reader. To ensure the validity of the digital
Multimedia and Data  Intellectual  Property  content recorded in the storage, different
Protection,  the  obtainment  of  digital  data  or  corresponding procedures are proposed:
content are based on the RFID induction. 1) End User RFID Device Induction: since the
Therefore, the corresponding hardware to induct RFID tag is embedded in the storage hardware, the
the RFID tag, decrypt or decode the digital data, and corresponding reader must equip the RFID Antenna
present the content is important. The RFID and RFID Reader. For example, the RFID Antenna
Hardware in this paper is divided into four types of and RFID Reader can be plugged or embedded in the
equipments: RFID Antenna, RFID Reader, and the CD-ROM. When the End User RFID Device is read,
Hardware Integration for Induction. the RFID Antenna and RFID Reader of CD-ROM
The RFID Antenna is the main component for induct the storage device.
RFID tag induction. The antenna continuously However, not all the storage device equips the
spreads the electromagnetic wave. The energy is RFID tag. Therefore, the integrated hardware has to
transmitted to the RFID tag. After induction, the separate the device into two types: Normal/Privacy
RFID Antenna also receives the signal from the RFID device without the RFID tag and the End User RFID
tag. Device.
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2) If the device cannot be inducted or without the RFID Hardware is needed. In addition, the end user
RFID tag, called Normal/Privacy device, only the applications are various. Hence, the plug and play
digital content without the Intellectual Property middleware for different hardware and applications
Protection can be read. If there is content with is important.
protection, only when the user provides the To manage the RFID information from different
decryption key the protected content can be read. In RFID Hardware, and the communication with
other words, the Hardware Integration for different applications, the Plug and Play Middleware
Decryption is needed. is proposed. To realize the concept of Plug and Play,
the proposed middleware has to manage the
Hardware Integration for Decryption information from the all possible third party RFID
Then, when the storage is defined or separated into Hardware, deal with and parse the information, and
the End User RFID Device, the corresponding then provide the required information to the
decryption method at the end user reader, Hardware corresponding applications. Therefore, the main
Integration for Decryption is needed: purposes of the proposed Plug and Play Middleware
1) Encryption and Decryption by Hardware and are:
Software combination: since the digital content is 1) to parse the information from the RFID
protected by the End User RFID Device, the Hardware. Due to that there are different RFID
Hardware Integration for Induction can induct the product, the RFID parser is needed for analyzing and
RFID tag embedded in the device. Then, the UID parsing the information from RFID Hardware. The
information and corresponding password or information about UID, password, etc. will be parsed
decryption code can be obtained. as the string for the further execution of applications.
According to the decryption method mentioned In this paper, two possible parsers are
above, the client user may need the End User RFID established. First, the Plug and Play Middleware
Tag to decrypt the protection. If the End User RFID provides the remote procedure call (RPC) function
Tag is needed, the client user should provide the for the third party RFID Hardware. The UID of the
corresponding End User RFID Tag. RFID tag inducted by the RFID Hardware will be
To induct the End User RFID Tag, in this paper, formulated as the string. In addition, the password or
the RFID inductor for Hardware Integration for requirements for further information such as
Induction is proposed and designed as the small decryption code recorded in the End User RFID
induction-panel which can be embedded in the MP3 Device can be provided by the remote procedure call
player. When the user put the End User RFID Tag on function.
the induction panel, the decryption information will Second, for general communication, the Plug
be obtained and used to decrypt the Intellectual and Play Middleware also provides the sever-client
Property Protection. socket link between the RFID Hardware and the
For example, the decryption code is recorded in middleware. In other words, even the RFID
the RFID tag of End User RFID Tag. However, the Hardware cannot implement the remote procedure
decryption code is secured by the password which call, depends on sever-client socket link, the
locks the data slot of RFID tag. Without the correct information can be transmitted between Plug and
password, end user cannot gain the decryption code Play Middleware and RFID Hardware.
that secured in the RFID tag. By using the End User 2) to provide the application program interface
RFID Tag, the application (Media Player Application) (API). Since the RFID Hardware may not directly
gains the decryption code and then can play the communicate with the applications, the Plug and
multimedia file. Play Middleware has to implement the
corresponding API for other third party applications
2.5 Plug and Play Middleware or software.
In this paper, there are two partitions: End User RFID In this paper, the Plug and Play Middleware
Device and End User RFID Tag. Therefore, the also implements two possible APIs: the external
application for communicating these two parts is procedure call and network communication. If the
needed. When using the End User RFID Device, the application is embedded in the Plug and Play
third party RFID Hardware can induct the RFID tag Middleware, the external procedure call sends the
embedded in the hardware. After identifying the End required information to the specific application. In
User RFID Device, the application or user can addition, some communications of the related
execute and read the digital content. Due to that there applications such as database query are also
are many types of RFID Hardware, the application established by the external procedure call. Then, the
program interface (API) for the different third party Plug and Play Middleware deals with the results
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from the external procedure call. In opposition to such as specific password-requirement, will be
external procedure call, for the concept of Plug and managed. In opposition to End User RFID Device,
Play, normal network communication is the password or decryption code from the End User
implemented. The third party software or RFID Tag will be recorded in the temporary database
applications can communicate with the Plug and of Plug and Play Middleware. The requirement will
Play Middleware via sending the information in be maintained based on the on demand limitation of
string format. For example, if the third party the period of validity or when the End User RFID
application requires the further checking, the Plug Device or End User RFID Tag is removed. In
and Play Middleware sends the required information addition, when an end user tries to gain the digital
such as UID to the server via Internet. After obtaining data from the End User RFID Device via other third
the response from the server, the Plug and Play party application or software, the Plug and Play
Middleware acknowledges the third party application Middleware will communicates with the specific
and then decrypts the digital content. application via external procedure call or network
After gaining the requirements or response, the communication. Figure 7 shows the flowchart of
Plug and Play Middleware searches the executing or gaining the digital content recorded in
corresponding applications such as media player and the End User RFID Device.
passes the information to the specific application.
Figure presents the framework of Plug and Play
Middleware.
Figure 6. The framework of Plug and Play
Middleware. Figure 7.The flowchart of executing or gaining the
digital content recorded in the End User RFID
In Figure 6, for the purpose of Plug and Play Device.
common communication between different
applications, the Plug and Play Middleware After receiving the password, the Plug and Play
implements the socket server-client structure and Middleware differentiates that the hardware
remote procedure call structure for communication decryption is needed or not. According to the
with other existed or third party applications. The possible encryption method, the hardware, End User
information comes from the End User RFID Device, RFID Tag, may be required for the password to
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obtain the secured decryption code which protected can automatically play the music file which is
in the tag memory of End User RFID Device. If the corresponding to the End User RFID Tag inducted.
End User RFID Tag is needed, the Plug and Play Generally, the frequency of RFID system used
Middleware searches for the End User RFID Tag and can be classified as LF (low frequency,
tries to gain the information such as the UID, 125~134KHz), HF (high frequency, 13.56 MHz), and
decryption code, or the password for the End User UHF (ultra high frequency, 915MHz). The
RFID Device. characteristics of these RFID systems are different
After obtaining the information from the End and shown in Table 1. In addition, there are different
User RFID Tag, the Plug and Play Middleware antenna sizes of the RFID systems. Due to the power
transmits the password and tries to gain the and size of RFID antenna, the induction distance
decryption code. If the decryption code is correct, the between antenna and tag changes. In our
Plug and Play Middleware acknowledges the implementation, considering the induction distance
application and provides the decryption code for data and the power consumption, the LF RFID Hardware
decoding. When the End User RFID Tag is needed, if is selected for our MP3 player.
the password is correct, the decryption code recorded
and secured in the End User RFID Device will be Table 1. The characteristics of different RFID
transmitted to the user application such as systems
multimedia player, etc. Otherwise, the digital content Low High Ultra High
cannot be decrypted and used. Frequency Frequency Frequency
Therefore, only the two conditions: 1) the key Induction


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