• Production and Engineering


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    • Abstract: Production and EngineeringKey Elements Procedure 3Production and EngineeringLIST OF CONTENTS1. Foreword .........................................................…............ Page 22. Technical Documentation and Methodology ...…......... 3

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Production and Engineering
Key Elements Procedure 3
Production and Engineering
LIST OF CONTENTS
1. Foreword .........................................................…............ Page 2
2. Technical Documentation and Methodology ...…......... 3
3. Quality Assurance at Product Development................... 7
Issue 1 11DEC 2006 1 Key Elements Procedure 3
Production and Engineering
1 FOREWORD
This booklet describes the requirements concerning the Production and Engineering
activities as indicated within the 'Key Elements for a Volvo Group Supplier'.
Link to 'key elements for a Volvo Group supplier':
http://www.volvo.com/Suppliers/global/en-gb/supplierselection/ourrequirements/
The aim of this document is to describe, in a summarised form:
- the technical (engineering) documents for parts used within the Volvo companies.
- the Quality Assurance process to be developed at product development
- the procedures related to examination and assessment of manufacturing process
(process audit) as well as the evaluation of finished Product (product audit)
Issue 1 11DEC 2006 2 Key Elements Procedure 3
Production and Engineering
2 TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION AND TECHNOLOGY / METHODS
It is of fundamental importance to Volvo that the supplier has full knowledge of the contents
and structure of Volvo's technical documentation. Volvo's quality system requirements also
present demands that should be fulfilled see Key Element Procedure 2 Quality Requirements.
In the text reference is made in several places to Volvo's corporate standards. The references
stated are, for example, STD XXXX,yyy and STD XXX-YYYY. Those standards are
available on internet. The address to Volvo Corporate Standards’ website is:
http://www.tech.volvo.se/standard/eng/
You can also subscribe to Volvo Corporate Standards’ newsletter and thereby get information
on new standards and updates by adding your e-mail address on the newsletter subscription
page. It is recommended that all users of standards at your company subscribe to this
newsletter. The newsletter subscription page is found on:
http://www.tech.volvo.se/standard/eng/subscribe.html
2.1 Design Engineering Documentation
The technical product documentation is the output of the design engineering work. This
information is communicated to internal customers, suppliers and production units. The
complete technical documentation describes the requirements made with regard to an
individual part or a system of parts. The different types of documents that can appear are
described briefly in this chapter.
The documentation is structured as follows:
• Principal document
Within Volvo the drawing is no longer the principal document for a part or a system
and does not provide all necessary requirements. Instead a part centric view on
product documentation has been adopted. This implies that the part itself is the
carrier of all information that is requisite for a complete definition of its properties. By
entering the “part’s homepage” in the applicable PDM system, links to defining
documents stated as primary references are provided along with other primary
attributes, e.g. the material and the surface treatment of a part.
To communicate this important information to those who need it but who cannot
access Volvo’s PDM systems, a printed extract of the “part’s homepage”, called Part
Version Report (PVR) is used. Only requirements specified as part attributes (material,
surface treatment) or given in documents stated as Primary Document references are
valid for the manufacturing of a part along with any additional requirements included
in the purchasing agreement.
In communication with parties that cannot access Volvo’s PDM systems, the Part
Version Report (PVR) is considered the Principal Document for a part.
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• Primary documents
A primary document is a product-defining document that specifies requirements,
which a manufactured part shall comply with. These documents are considered as
legally binding in agreements between Volvo and a supplier.
Examples:
Primary The generally used drawing form within Volvo is described in
Drawings: standard STD 910-0001 – Corporate forms for industrial
documents. Some drawing types are:
Single-part drawing
Drawing which shows a part and specifies its property
requirements.
Multi-part drawing
Drawing which shows several similar parts, varying in size or in
other characteristics
Assembly drawing
Drawing which shows the parts included in an assembly part
Supplier drawing
Drawing of a supplier part where an external supplier is responsible
for the design, documentation and maintenance of the part, and
which through a Volvo internal procedure has been pasted onto a
Volvo drawing sheet. Agreed additional Volvo requirements may
be specified on the resulting Volvo drawing, outside the borders of
the supplier document. The procedures for these documents are
given in STD 910-0005 – Supplier parts and supplier documents.
Digital Shape DSM Basis
Model Basis 3-D digital model that defines the shape of part. Together with
(DSM Basis) other primary documents it makes up a complete definition of the
part.
Standard STD 101-0001 – Digital Shape Model basis – DSM basis,
lays down the rules for interpreting a combination of part drawings
and DSMs, e.g. when a dimension is given by the model while
applicable tolerances are stated on the drawing.
Primary Technotes
Technotes A technote is a text and image-based design-engineering document
that is created by means of word-processing technique. The most
commonly used type of technote is the Technical Requirements –
TR (previously called Technical Regulation - TR )
Technical Requirements (TR)
Technote which specifies requirements for one specific part or for a
group of parts with equal characteristics. This document type
should contain product requirements and, when appropriate,
information needed for verification of these requirements.
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Production and Engineering
Master Sample Master Sample
an object that concretely shows and establishes a particular
requirement for the purpose of inspecting other objects. A master
sample lays down property requirements on the grain, pattern,
colour and gloss of a surface. However, a master sample does not
establish requirements on shape, size, thickness or similar.
Standards Volvo Group standards cover different technical areas. Some
standards are directly given as primary attributes to the part, e.g.
standards specifying the material and surface treatment to be used.
Other standards are referred to from the primary documents, e.g. the
part drawing and they provide prerequisites for an unambiguous
interpretation of the document or may also stipulate various kinds
of standardized requirements to be complied with.
Volvo standards are based on applicable international standards.
Only in exceptional cases, when no international standards exist,
unique Volvo standards are created.
IMPORTANT! When there is a reference to a standard, the
standard is valid. Some standards have been labelled “Not for new
design”, but also these are valid if referred to.
• Supplementary documents
A supplementary document is a product descriptive document that provides additional
information regarding a part but is not needed for manufacturing or verification. These
documents, which may be drawings, digital 3-D models or technotes, are usually not
distributed to a manufacturer. Supplementary documents may constitute the basis for
the requirements expressed in the primary documents.
• Technical control documents
Document that control the production of parts and the introduction of changes to
documents, parts and products may occur under different names within the different
Business Areas and Business Units of the Volvo Group, e.g. Design Change Notice
(DCN) and Engineering Change Notice (ECN). The purpose of the document is to
give a notification to concerned parties (purchasing, manufacturing etc) to start up
needed activities
2.2 Technology / Methods
The purpose of this chapter is to state the technology and methods used within Volvo
for the production and management of technical documentation.
• CAD / CAM / CAE : Computer Aided Design / Manufacturing / Engineering
Modern CAD/CAM/CAE technology is a prerequisite for integrated product
development and high interactivity between the parties involved (concurrent
engineering).
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• Communication of Technical documentation
More and more documents are being produced and managed (in digital form) by using
computer systems. Methods/technology and routines for the exchange of this type of
information is a necessity. It must also be possible to transfer documents in forms other
than digital.
The method of exchanging data must be tested carefully before it is introduced.
More extensive collaboration, however, requires a totally different form of integration.
This integration requires, for example, direct access to each other's databases, maybe
even the same type of CAD system, etc. Exchange of digital information requires a
well-controlled format standard. Examples of standards for the exchange of digital
documents are, IGES, VDAFS, TIFF, POSTSCRIPT, PDF (ACROBAT), etc.
Make an agreement with your contact person at Volvo what and how documents will be
exchanged (Waft, Exter system…). A basic agreement must contain information about:
• CAD model data format( e.g. STEP or/and IGES etc)
• CAD model media (e.g. CD, EXTER etc)
• Complexity of CAD model ( e.g. No radius less than 20 mm etc)
• Purpose with the CAD model (e.g. DSM, pack model etc)
• Drawing exchange media (e.g. paper drawings and DHL etc)
• Drawing exchange format (tif, cals, dxf, paper etc)
• Contact persons at Volvo (Design department number and name of person)
• Tests procedures to check if exchange system is working
The demands are different from company to company and from case to case.
• Quality Assurance - Document Control
Please see the file Key Element Procedure 2 - Quality requirements
• PDM
PDM is an abbreviation of Product Data Management.
PDM is a framework for integrated product development with flexibility, adaptability
and openness.
The term PDM for documents refers to systems and routines established to ensure order
among products and product-related documents. Components and document structures
are also included. Case handling, the release process, security, availability and access
are other important aspects.
Issue 1 11DEC 2006 6 Key Elements Procedure 3
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3 QUALITY ASSURANCE AT PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
Quality Assurance in product development comprises, in principle, the following three
categories of components purchased by Volvo:
- New products which are unique to Volvo, products for which development
and engineering are undertaken by the supplier solely on behalf of Volvo. Those
products can be also a Group of products which represent a complete function or
system.
- Existing products whose design is adapted by the supplier to suit the
particular requirements and wishes of Volvo.
- Existing products (off the shelf).
The Quality Assurance process should encompass activities ranging from the supplier’s
proposals to system or component solutions onto Volvo’s product approval which is
based on prototypes, testing and technical product descriptions and specifications as
agreed.
This document deals mainly with new products and, where applicable, products whose
design is adapted by the supplier.
3.1 The supplier’s organization and routines
The supplier’s company management should ensure by means of efficient organisation
and work routines, that the development project assigned by Volvo progresses
according to the established and agreed timetable (time plans and flow charts with
check lists).
Development projects are to be handled by qualified personnel with documented
authorisation and resources.
Routines should be established for the control of the development effort, co-ordination
of sub-contractor’s participation, documentation of the current stage of development
and the infrastructure required to deal with the day-to-day changes during the product
engineering phase.
Documented routines (work guidelines) should be drawn up for regular internal design
review meetings and for those meetings which are co-ordinated with Volvo’s
representatives. Customer and field experience and other experience from similar
products should be examined at these meetings. Co-operation between the supplier and
Volvo should be structured to permit matching of activities in design review meetings to
Volvo’s various engineering phases in development and engineering project.
All those requirements are part of AIAG APQP (Automotive Industry Action Group
Advance Product and Quality Planning) and ISO TS 16949 routines.
Issue 1 11DEC 2006 7 Key Elements Procedure 3
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Volvo’s is expecting from their suppliers to apply ISO TS 16949 and Volvo's APQP
requirements. Volvo’s APQP is AIAG APQP + additional Volvo’s requirements.
There are described in Key Element Procedure 2 - Quality Requirements
3.2 Requirement Specification
Volvo will supply the engineering parameters in a functional requirement specification
or corresponding technical documents, which normally contain:
• Product description.
• Geometrical requirements
• Design models
• Packaging models
• Drawings with different requirements
• Reliability requirements.
• Product application, environment and other operational conditions.
• Installation parameters (available space etc.).
• Property requirements, often classified according to critical characteristics
(material, function, electrical and mechanical requirements). Critical
characteristics definition are described in the Volvo’s standard No. 105-0001,
"Critical characteristics of design products".
• Tests, test methods and verification requirements.
Prototypes have to be produced in agreed quantities. They have to be produced using a
process which is representative of the serial production manufacturing process.
The supplier shall be active in testing- and development work.
3.3 Joint Development Partners
Based on the above requirement specification, Volvo appoints a partner who meets the
conditions indicated in section 3.1, with regard to organisation and routines. After this,
an agreement defining the scope of the assignment is signed. This can be done in a
Development agreement, which may contain target price, confidentiality etc.
As described in section 3.1, it’s important that both the supplier and Volvo share their
routines of tests validation of the product. It will ensure that the product will meet the
specifications with a relevant number of tests.
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3.4 Project Groups and Project Plans
The supplier is to establish a project group of suitable size, headed by a development
manager as well as contact persons (for technical documentation, tools and samples).
The project group, which should represent all the parties relevant to the project, should
meet at predetermined intervals with a reference group or representatives from Volvo,
to assess, among other things, the current stage of development. A project plan, in
which key events relevant to Volvo and the supplier are identified, should be created by
the supplier.
The involvement of the supplier in prototype builds at Volvo and subsequent
verification, if required, should be agreed upon at the same time as the project plan is
established. Lead times and the consequences of changes should also be firmly
identified, evaluated and agreed upon.
The workload and need of resources due to the Volvo’s needs in quantity of prototypes
has to be assessed in order to avoid any issues or delays during the development phase.
3.5 Design Proposals
The supplier is responsible for ensuring that preliminary system and component
proposals are presented to Volvo. These proposals should be based on the requirements
indicated above and on function analyses. Particular concern should be given to the
documentation of critical properties, i.e. properties which have an important impact on
the requirements stipulated by Volvo, legal authorities etc. Volvo’s principle for critical
characteristics should be applied for identification of the relative significance of various
characteristics in the event of failure. There should be a plan to contend with these
eventualities.
Failure risk analyses of the proposed engineering solutions should be carried out as a
basis for evaluation of the various engineering proposals versus Volvo’s requirements
specifications.
Issue 1 11DEC 2006 9 Key Elements Procedure 3
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3.6 Reliability
Reliability requirements are usually based on the complete vehicle (end product), and
are then broken down into the sub-systems and components.
Reliability work demands the application of modern statistical methods for analyses and
testing, as well as formal, systematic design and production reviews, in which the
products and processes are carefully studied, taking into account failure potentials, etc.
3.6.1 Reliability analyses
Reliability analyses conducted during the development phase have a twofold purpose:
- to prevent the occurrence of failures and sources of failures while at the same time
giving priority to remedies for conceivable failures or sources of failures
- to serve as a means of evaluating the finished product’s compliance with the
stipulated requirements.
Field Failure prediction
The supplier shall perform estimations of failure frequencies, which take into account
operating and environmental conditions. This means that complete operating sub-
systems including all functions and components linked to the component must be taken
into account and with consideration to extreme operating conditions (worst case).
Field feedback on failures
A rapid system of feedback must be implemented, and it must be designed to ensure that
no information is excluded, i.e. individual faults, minor faults and failure tendencies
must also be included.
Programme for counter-measures
Based on the failure-frequency estimates, market analyses and failure mode and effect
analyses performed, programmes of corrective measures shall be created and
implemented to ensure that the level of reliability continues to increase.
Such programme of corrective measures shall also be used as a base for design
agreements and tests.
3.6.2 Reliability verification
Verification should be based on the established test programme and should for example
include:
• function tests
• service life tests
• climate tests
• electrical and mechanical tests
Planning of the test programme should take particular account of the scope of the tests,
their sequence and the effects of various test combinations. The results of these tests
must be fed back to the development effort so that the reliability can be assured.
For practical reasons, reliability tests can be performed only to a limited extent. It is
therefore important that modern statistical methods are used in planning and evaluation.
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3.7 Quality Tools in Development
It is imperative that Volvo’s partners have an adequate education in modern test
planning and that they apply the following methods/tools systematically:
• D-FMEA: Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
• DOE: Design Of Experiments (factorial tests, Taguchi-experiments)
• Functional analysis
• DFM: Design For Manufacturing
• DFA: Design For Assembly
This list is not exhaustive. Two others tools have to be shared with Volvo in the frame
of the Volvo’s APQP (refer to PQP2):
• RTS: Review of Technical Specifications
• PAA: Part Application Approval
3.8 Result of Product Development
The result from the product development is to be delivered for approval within the
agreed time limit. This documentation normally includes:
• Technical documentation (which is classified in critical characteristics where
appropriate)
• Failure analyses
• D-FMEA conclusions
• Test results
• Test programme for running production
• Manufacturing instructions which may be necessary
• Any assembly instructions which may be necessary
• Prototypes or samples as agreed
No changes may be made to the technical documentation without prior approval from
Volvo. All changes are to be documented carefully and any consequences charted with
great attention to accuracy (effects on lead times, other products etc.).
Issue 1 11DEC 2006 11 Key Elements Procedure 3


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