• LAND RESOURCES AND AGRICULTURE


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    • Abstract: wasteland. (ix) Net Area Sown : The physical. extent of land on which crops are. sown and harvested is known ... scope for bringing in additional land under. net sown area in India is limited. There is, ...

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You must have observed that the land around
Unit III you is put to different uses. Some land is
Chapter 5 occupied by rivers, some may have trees and
on some parts roads and buildings have been
built. Different types of lands are suited to
different uses. Human beings thus, use land
as a resource for production as well as residence
and recreation. Thus, the building of your
school, roads on which you travel, parks in
which you play, fields in which crops are grown
and the pastures where animals graze represent
different uses to which land is put.
Land Use Categories
LAND RESOURCES Land-use records are maintained by land
AND AGRICULTURE revenue department. The land use categories
add up to reporting area, which is somewhat
different from the geographical area. The
Survey of India is responsible for measuring
geographical area of administrative units in
India. Have you ever used a map prepared by
Survey of India? The difference between the two
concepts are that while the former changes
somewhat depending on the estimates of the
land revenue records, the latter does not change
and stays fixed as per Survey of India
measurements. You may be familiar with land
use categories as they are also included in your
Social Science textbook of Class X.
Te ln-s ctgre a mitie i
h adue aeois s anand n
te Ln Rvne Rcrs ae a flos :
h ad eeu eod r s olw
(
i
) Forests : I i i p r a t t n t t a
t s motn o oe ht
ae udr ata frs cvr i
ra ne cul oet oe s
dfeet fo ae casfe a frs.
ifrn rm ra lsiid s oet
Te lte i te ae wih te
h atr s h ra hc h
Gvrmn
oenet hs
a ietfe
dniid adn
dmrae fr frs got. Te ln
eactd o oet rwh h ad
rvne rcrs ae cnitn wt
eeu eod r osset ih
te lte dfnto. Thus, there may
h atr eiiin
b a ices i ti ctgr wtot
e n nrae n hs aeoy ihu
ay ices i te ata frs cvr
n nrae n h cul oet oe.
(i
i) Land put to Non-agricultural Uses :
Ln udr stlmns (ua ad
ad ne eteet rrl n
ubn, ifatutr (od, cnl,
ra) nrsrcue ras aas
ec) idsre, sos ec ae
t., nutis hp, t. r
i c u e i t i c t g ry A e p n i n
nldd n hs aeo . n xaso
i te scnay ad trir atvte
n h eodr n etay ciiis
wud la t a ices i ti
ol ed o n nrae n hs Land-use Changes in India
ctgr o ln-s.
aeoy f adue
Land-use in a region, to a large extent, is
(i) Barren and Wastelands : T e l n
ii h ad influenced by the nature of economic
wih my b
hc a e casfe
lsiid a s a activities carried out in that region. However,
wsead sc
atln uh a s brearn hly
il while economic activities change over time,
tran, dsr lns rvns ec
eris eet ad, aie, t. land, like many other natural resources, is
nral
omly cno ant b e bogt udr
ruh ne fixed in terms of its area. At this stage, one
cliain
utvto wt
ih te
h aalbe
vial needs to appreciate three types of changes
technology . that an economy undergoes, which affect
(v Area under Permanent Pastures and
i) land-use.
Grazing Lands : M s o t i t p l n
ot f hs ye ad (i) The size of the economy (measured
i o n d b t e v l a e ‘Panchayat’ o
s we y h ilg r in terms of value for all the goods and
te
h Gvrmn.
oenet Ol
ny a sal
ml services produced in the economy)
pooto o ti ln i piaey
rprin f hs ad s rvtl grows over time as a result of
ond Te ln ond b te vlae
we. h ad we y h ilg increasing population, change in
pnhyt
acaa cms
oe udr
ne ‘omn
Cmo income levels, available technology
Poet
rpry Rsucs.
eore’ and associated factors. As a result, the
()
v Area under Miscellaneous Tree pressure on land will increase with
Crops and Groves(Not included is time and marginal lands would come
Net sown Area) : T e l n u d r
h ad ne under use.
ocad ad fut tes ae icue
rhrs n ri re r nldd (ii) Secondly, the composition of the
i t i c t g ry M c o t i l n i
n hs aeo . uh f hs ad s economy would undergo a change over
piaey ond
rvtl we. time. In other words, the secondary and
the tertiary sectors usually grow much
(i Culturable Wa t -
v) s e Land : A y l n
n ad
wih i lf flo (nutvtd fr
hc s et alw ucliae) o faster than the primary sector, specifically
mr ta fv yas i icue i ti
oe hn ie er s nldd n hs the agricultural sector. This type of
c t g ry I c n b b o g t u d r
aeo . t a e ruh ne change is common in developing
cliain atr ipoig i truh
utvto fe mrvn t hog countries like India. This process would
rcaain
elmto patcs
rcie. result in a gradual shift of land from
agricultural uses to non-agricultural
(i) Current Fallow : T i i t e l n
vi hs s h ad uses. You would observe that such
wih i lf wtot cliain fr oe
hc s et ihu utvto o n
changes are sharp around large urban
o ls ta oe arclua ya
r es hn n g i u t r l e r.
areas. The agricultural land is being used
Floig i a clua patc aotd
alwn s utrl rcie dpe
for building purposes.
fr gvn te ln rs. Te ln
o iig h ad et h ad
rcus te ls friiy truh ntrl
eop h ot etlt hog aua
(iii) Thirdly, though the contribution of the
processes. agricultural activities reduces over time,
the pressure on land for agricultural
(ii Fallow other than Current Fallow :
vi) activities does not decline. The reasons
Ti i as a clial ln wih i
hs s lo utvbe ad hc s for continued pressure on agricultural
lf ucliae fr mr ta a ya
et nutvtd o oe hn er land are:
bt ls ta fv yas I te ln i
u es hn ie er. f h ad s (a) In developing countries, the
lf ucliae fr mr ta fv
et nutvtd o oe hn ie
share of population dependent
yas i wud b ctgrsd a
er, t ol e aeoie s
on agriculture usually declines
clual
utrbe wsead
atln.
much more slowly compared to
(x Net Area Sown
i) : Te pyia
h hscl the decline in the sector’s share
etn o ln o wih cos ae
xet f ad n hc rp r in GDP.
sw ad hretd i kon a nt
on n avse s nw s e (b) The number of people that the
sw
on ae.
ra agricultural sector has to feed is
increasing day by day.
Land Resources and Agriculture 41
Note : Categories (iv) and (v) of Section I have been clubbed together in the graph.
Fig. 5.1
industrial and services sectors and
expansion of related infrastructural
C m a e t e c a g i s a e o p i a , scna
opr h h n e n h r s f r m ry e o d ry facilities. Also, an expansion of area
ad trir scos i GP bten 16-1 ad 19-
n etay etr n D ewe 906 n 99 under both urban and rural settlements
20 wt te cags o ln-s bten 16-1
00 ih h hne f adue ewe 906 has added to the increase. Thus, the area
ad 20-3 uig Apni (ii tbe 1 ad 2
n 020 sn pedx vi) als n . under non-agricultural uses is
increasing at the expense of wastelands
India has undergone major changes within and agricultural land.
the economy over the past four or five decades, (ii) The increase in the share under forest,
and this has influenced the land-use changes as explained before, can be accounted
in the country. These changes between 1960- for by increase in the demarcated area
61 and 2002-03 have been shown in Fig. 5.1. under forest rather than an actual
There are two points that you need to remember increase in the forest cover in the country.
before you derive some meaning from this (iii) The increase in the current fallow cannot
figure. Firstly, the percentages shown in the be explained from information
figure have been derived with respect to the pertaining to only two points. The trend
reporting area. Secondly, since even the of current fallow fluctuates a great deal
reporting area has been relatively constant over over years, depending on the variability
the years, a decline in one category usually of rainfall and cropping cycles.
leads to an increase in some other category. The four categories that have registered a
Three categories have undergone decline are barren and wasteland, culturable
increases, while four have registered declines. wasteland, area under pastures and tree crops
Share of area under forest, area under non- and net area sown.
agricultural uses and current fallow lands have The following explanations can be given
shown an increase. The following observations for the declining trends:
can be made about these increases: (i) As the pressure on land increased, both
(i) The rate of increase is the highest in case from the agricultural and non-
of area under non-agricultural uses. This agricultural sectors, the wastelands and
is due to the changing structure of culturable wastelands have witnessed
Indian economy, which is increasingly decline over time.
depending on the contribution from (ii) The decline in net area sown is a recent
42 India : People and Economy
phenomenon that started in the late weaker sections since many of them depend on
nineties, before which it was registering income from their livestock due to the fact that
a slow increase. There are indications they have limited access to land. CPRs also are
that most of the decline has occurred important for women as most of the fodder and
due to the increases in area under non- fuel collection is done by them in rural areas.
agricultural use. (Note : the expansion They have to devote long hours in collecting fuel
of building activity on agricultural land and fodder from a degraded area of CPR.
in your village and city). CPRs can be defined as community’s natural
(iii) The decline in land under pastures and resource, where every member has the right of
grazing lands can be explained by access and usage with specified obligations,
pressure from agricultural land. Illegal without anybody having property rights over
encroachment due to expansion of them. Community forests, pasture lands, village
cultivation on common pasture lands is water bodies and other public spaces where a
largely responsible for this decline. group larger than a household or family unit
exercises rights of use and carries responsibility
of management are examples of CPRs.
Agricultural Land Use in India
Wa i te dfeec bten ata ices ad
ht s h ifrne ewe cul nrae n
rt o ices? Wr ot te ata ices ad
ae f nrae ok u h cul nrae n Land resource is more crucial to the
rt o icess fr al te ln ue ctgre bten
ae f nrae o l h ad s aeois ewe livelihood of the people depending on
16-1 ad 20-3 fo te dt gvn i te Apni
906 n 020 rm h aa ie n h pedx agriculture:
(ii ( b e 1 . E p a n t e r s l s
vi) Ta l ) x l i h e u t . (i) Agriculture is a purely land based
Note for Teacher activity unlike secondary and tertiary
activities. In other words, contribution
Fr cluaig ata ices, te dfeec o te
o acltn cul nrae h ifrne f h of land in agricultural output is more
ln-s ctgre sol b wre ot oe te to
adue aeois hud e okd u vr h w compared to its contribution in the
periods. outputs in the other sectors. Thus, lack
of access to land is directly correlated
Fr drvn te rt o ices, sml got rt ie
o eiig h ae f nrae ipe rwh ae ..
with incidence of poverty in rural areas.
(ifrne o vle bten te to tm pit ie
dfeec f aus ewe h w ie ons ..
(ii) Quality of land has a direct bearing on
vle o tria ya mns bs ya / bs ya o
au f emnl er iu ae er ae er r
the productivity of agriculture, which is
16-1 vle sol b ue, eg
906 au) hud e sd ..
not true for other activities.
Net sown Area in 2002-03 Net sown Area in 1960-61
100
(iii) In rural areas, aside from its value as a
Net sown Area in 1960-61 productive factor, land ownership has a
social value and serves as a security for
Proper Resour
operty esources
Common Property Resources credit, natural hazards or life
contingencies, and also adds to the social
Land, according to its ownership can broadly status.
be classified under two broad heads – private An estimation of the total stock of
land and common property resources (CPRs). agricultural land resources (i.e. total cultivable
While the former is owned by an individual or a land can be arrived at by adding up net sown
group of individuals, the latter is owned by the area, all fallow lands and culturable wasteland.
state meant for the use of the community. CPRs It may be observed from Table 5.1 that over the
provide fodder for the livestock and fuel for the years, there has been a marginal decline in the
households along with other minor forest available total stock of cultivable land as a
products like fruits, nuts, fibre, medicinal percentage to total reporting area. There has
plants, etc. In rural areas, such land is of been a greater decline of cultivated land, in spite
particular relevance for the livelihood of the of a corresponding decline of cultivable
landless and marginal farmers and other wasteland.
Land Resources and Agriculture 43
Table 5.1 : Composition of Total Cultivable Land
Agricultural Land-use As a percentage of As a percentage to
Reporting Area Total Cultivated land
Categories 1960-61 2002-03 1960-61 2002-03
Culturable Wasteland 6.23 4.41 10.61 7.52
Fallow other than Current Fallow 3.5 3.82 5.96 6.51
Current Fallow 3.73 7.03 6.35 11.98
Net Area Sown 45.26 43.41 77.08 73.99
Total Cultivable Land 58.72 58.67 100.00 100.00
It is clear from the above discussion that this season facilitate the cultivation of temperate
the scope for bringing in additional land under and subtropical crops such as wheat, gram and
net sown area in India is limited. There is, thus, mustard. Zaid is a short duration summer
an urgent need to evolve and adopt land-saving cropping season beginning after harvesting of
technologies. Such technologies can be classified rabi crops. The cultivation of watermelons,
under two heads – those which raise the yield cucumbers, vegetables and fodder crops during
of any particular crop per unit area of land and this season is done on irrigated lands. However,
those which increase the total output per unit this type of distinction in the cropping season
area of land from all crops grown over one does not exist in southern parts of the country.
agricultural year by increasing land-use Here, the temperature is high enough to grow
intensity. The advantage of the latter kind of tropical crops during any period in the year
technology is that along with increasing output provided the soil moisture is available.
from limited land, it also increases the demand Therefore, in this region same crops can be
for labour significantly. For a land scarce but grown thrice in an agricultural year provided
labour abundant country like India, a high there is sufficient soil moisture.
cropping intensity is desirable not only for fuller
utilisation of land resource, but also for Types of Farming
reducing unemployment in the rural economy.
On the basis of main source of moisture for
The cropping intensity (CI) is calculated as
crops, the farming can be classified as irrigated
follows :
and rainfed (barani). There is difference in the
GCA nature of irrigated farming as well based on
Cropping Intensity in percentage 100
NSA objective of irrigation, i.e. protective or
productive. The objective of protective irrigation
Cropping Seasons in India is to protect the crops from adverse effects of soil
There are three distinct crop
seasons in the northern and Table 5.2 : Cropping Seasons in India
interior parts of country, namely
kharif, rabi and zaid. The kharif Cropping Season Major Crops Cultivated
season largely coincides with Northern States Southern States
Southwest Monsoon under which
the cultivation of tropical crops Kharif Rice, Cotton, Bajra, Rice, Maize, Ragi,
June-September Maize, Jowar, Tur Jowar, Groundnut
such as rice, cotton, jute, jowar,
bajra and tur is possible. The rabi Rabi Wheat, Gram, Rapeseeds Rice, Maize, Ragi,
season begins with the onset of October – March and Mustard, Barley Groundnut, Jowar
winter in October-November and
ends in March-April. The low Zaid Vegetables, Fruits, Rice, Vegetables,
temperature conditions during April–June Fodder Fodder
44 India : People and Economy
moisture deficiency which often means that Rice
irrigation acts as a supplementary source of water
Rice is a staple food for the overwhelming
over and above the rainfall. The strategy of this
majority of population in India. Though, it is
kind of irrigation is to provide soil moisture to
considered to be a crop of tropical humid areas,
maximum possible area. Productive irrigation is
it has about 3,000 varieties which are grown in
meant to provide sufficient soil moisture in the
different agro-climatic regions. These are
cropping season to achieve high productivity. In
successfully grown from sea level to about
such irrigation the water input per unit area of
2,000 m altitude and from humid areas in
cultivated land is higher than protective irrigation.
eastern India to dry but irrigated areas of
Rainfed farming is further classified on the basis
Punjab, Haryana, western U.P. and northern
of adequacy of soil moisture during cropping
Rajasthan. In southern states and West Bengal
season into dryland and wetland farming. In
the climatic conditions allow the cultivation of
India, the dryland farming is largely confined
two or three crops of rice in an agricultural year.
to the regions having annual rainfall less than 75
In West Bengal farmers grow three crops of rice
cm. These regions grow hardy and drought
called ‘aus’, ‘aman’ and ‘boro’. But in
resistant crops such as ragi, bajra, moong, gram
Himalayas and northwestern parts of the
and guar (fodder crops) and practise various
country, it is grown as a kharif crop during
measures of soil moisture conservation and rain
southwest Monsoon season.
water harvesting. In wetland farming, the
India contributes 22 per cent of rice
rainfall is in excess of soil moisture requirement
production in the world and ranks second after
of plants during rainy season. Such regions may
China. About one-fourth of the total cropped
face flood and soil erosion hazards. These areas
area in the country is under rice cultivation.
grow various water intensive crops such as rice,
West Bengal, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra
jute and sugarcane and practise aquaculture in
Pradesh and Tamil Nadu were five leading rice
the fresh water bodies.
producing states in the country in 2002-03. The
yield level of rice is high in Punjab, Tamil Nadu,
Cropping Pattern
Cropping Pa Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and
Kerala. In the first four of these states almost
Foodgrains
the entire land under rice cultivation is irrigated.
The importance of foodgrains in Indian Punjab and Haryana are not traditional rice
agricultural economy may be gauged from the
fact these crops occupy about two-third of total
cropped area in the country. Foodgrains are
dominant crops in all parts of the country
whether they have subsistence or commercial
agricultural economy. On the basis of the
structure of grain the foodgrains are classified
as cereals and pulses.
Cereals
The cereals occupy about 54 per cent of total
cropped area in India. The country produces
about 11 per cent cereals of the world and ranks Fig. 5.2 : Rice transplantation in southern parts of India
third in production after China and U.S.A. India growing areas. Rice cultivation in the irrigated
produces a variety of cereals, which are areas of Punjab and Haryana was introduced
classified as fine grains (rice, wheat) and coarse in 1970s following the Green Revolution.
grains (jowar, bajra, maize, ragi), etc. Account Genetically improved varieties of seed, relatively
of important cereals has been given in the high usage of fertilisers and pesticides and lower
following paragraphs : levels of susceptibility of the crop to pests due to
Land Resources and Agriculture 45
Fig. 5.3 : India – Distribution of Rice
46 India : People and Economy
dry climatic conditions are responsible for higher Bajra
yield of rice in this region. The yield of this crop
Bajra is sown in hot and dry climatic conditions
is very low in rainfed areas of Madhya Pradesh,
in northwestern and western parts of the
Chhattisgarh and Orissa.
country. It is a hardy crop which resists frequent
dry spells and drought in this region. It is
Wheat cultivated alone as well as part of mixed
Wheat is the second most important cereal crop cropping. This coarse cereal occupies about 5.2
in India after rice. India produces about 12 per per cent of total cropped area in the country.
cent of total wheat production of world. It is Leading producers of bajra are the states of
primarily a crop of temperate zone. Hence, its Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan
cultivation in India is done during winter i.e. and Haryana. Being a rainfed crop, the yield level
rabi season. About 85 per cent of total area of this crop is low in Rajasthan and fluctuates a
under this crop is concentrated in north and lot from year to year. Yield of this crop has
central regions of the country i.e. Indo-Gangetic increased during recent years in Haryana and
Plain, Malwa Plateau and Himalayas up to Gujarat due to introduction of drought resistant
2,700 m altitude. Being a rabi crop, it is mostly varieties and expansion of irrigation under it.
grown under irrigated conditions. But it is a
rainfed crop in Himalayan highlands and parts Maize
of Malwa plateau in Madhya Pradesh. Maize is a food as well as fodder crop grown
About 14 per cent of the total cropped area under semi-arid climatic conditions and over
in the country is under wheat cultivation. Uttar inferior soils. This crop occupies only about
Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and 3.6 per cent of total cropped area. Maize
Madhya Pradesh are five leading wheat cultivation is not concentrated in any specific
producing states. The yield level of wheat is region. It is sown all over India except eastern
very high (above 4,000 k.g. per ha) in Punjab and north-eastern regions. The leading
and Haryana whereas, Uttar Pradesh, producers of maize are the states of Madhya
Rajasthan and Bihar have moderate yields. The Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka,
states like Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Yield level of
and Jammu and Kashmir growing wheat under maize is higher than other coarse cereals. It is
rainfed conditions have low yield. high in southern states and declines towards
central parts.
Jowar
The coarse cereals together occupy about Pulses
16.50 per cent of total cropped area in the Pulses are a very important ingredient of
country. Among these, jowar or sorghum alone vegetarian food as these are rich sources of
accounts for about 5.3 per cent of total proteins. These are legume crops which
cropped area. It is main food crop in semi-arid increase the natural fertility of soils through
areas of central and southern India. nitrogen fixation. India is a leading producer of
Maharashtra alone produces more than half pulses and accounts for about one-fifth of the
of the total jowar production of the country. total production of pulses in the world. The
Other leading producer states of jowar are cultivation of pulses in the country is largely
Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra concentrated in the drylands of Deccan and
Pradesh. It is sown in both kharif and rabi central plateaus and northwestern parts of the
seasons in southern states. But it is a kharif country. Pulses occupy about 11 per cent of
crop in northern India where it is mostly grown the total cropped area in the country. Being the
as a fodder crop. South of Vindhyachal it is a rainfed crops of drylands, the yields of pulses
rainfed crop and its yield level is very low in are low and fluctuate from year to year. Gram
this region. and tur are the main pulses cultivated in India.
Land Resources and Agriculture 47
Fig. 5.4 : India – Distribution of Wheat
48 India : People and Economy
Gram Groundnut
Gram is cultivated in subtropical areas. It is India produces about 17 per cent the total of
mostly a rainfed crop cultivated during rabi groundnut production in the world. It is largely
season in central, western and northwestern parts a rainfed kharif crop of drylands. But in
of the country. Just one or two light showers or southern India, it is cultivated during rabi
irrigations are required to grow this crop season as well. It covers about 3.6 per cent of
successfully. It has been displaced from the total cropped area in the country. Gujarat, Tamil
cropping pattern by wheat in Haryana, Punjab Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and
and northern Rajasthan following the green Maharashtra are the leading producers. Yield
revolution. At present, gram covers only about of groundnut is comparatively high in Tamil
2.8 per cent of the total cropped area in the Nadu where it is partly irrigated. But its yield
country. Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, is low in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan
are the main producers of this pulse crop. The Rapeseed and Mustard
yield of this crop continues to be low and fluctuates
Rapeseed and mustard comprise several oilseeds
from year to year even in irrigated areas.
as rai, sarson, toria and taramira. These are
subtropical crops cultivated during rabi season
Tur (Arhar)
in north-western and central parts of India.
Tur is the second important pulse crop in the These are frost sensitive crops and their yields
country. It is also known as red gram or pigeon fluctuate from year to year. But with the
pea. It is cultivated over marginal lands and expansion of irrigation and improvement in seed
under rainfed conditions in the dry areas of technology, their yields have improved and
central and southern states of the country. This stabilised to some extent. About two-third of the
crop occupies only about 2 per cent of total cultivated area under these crops is irrigated.
cropped area of India. Maharashtra alone These oilseeds together occupy only 2.5 per cent
contributes about one-third of the total of total cropped area in the country. Rajasthan
production of tur. Other leading producer states contributes about one-third production while
are Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat and other leading producers are Uttar Pradesh,
Madhya Pradesh. Per hectare output of this crop Haryana, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh.
is very low and its performance is inconsistent. Yields of these crops are comparatively high in
Haryana and Rajasthan.
Other Oilseeds
Dfeetae bten dfeet fogan. Mx gan o
ifrnit ewe ifrn odris i ris f Soyabean and sunflower are other important
vros kns ad sprt cras fo ple. As,
aiu id n eaae eel rm uss lo oilseeds grown in India. Soyabean is mostly
sprt fn fo cas cras
eaae ie rm ore eel. grown in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
Oilseeds
The oilseeds are produced for extracting edible
oils. Drylands of Malwa plateau, Marathwada,
Gujarat, Rajasthan, Telangana and Rayalseema
region of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka
plateau are oilseeds growing regions of India.
These crops together occupy about 14 per cent
of total cropped area in the country.
Groundnut, rapeseed and mustard, soyabean
and sunflower are the main oilseed crops grown Fig. 5.5 : Farmers sowing soyabean seeds in Amravati,
in India. Maharashtra
Land Resources and Agriculture 49
Fig. 5.6 : India – Distribution of Cotton and Jute
50 India : People and Economy
These two states together produce about 90 per in south. Leading producers of this crop are
cent of total output of soyabean in the country. Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh,
Sunflower cultivation is concentrated in Punjab and Haryana. Per hectare output of
Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and adjoining cotton is high under irrigated conditions in
areas of Maharashtra. It is a minor crop in north-western region of the country. Its yield
northern parts of the country where its yield is is very low in Maharashtra where it is grown
high due to irrigation. under rainfed conditions.
Fibre Crops Jute
These crops provide us fibre for preparing cloth, Jute is used for making coarse cloth, bags, sacks
bags, sacks and a number of other items. and decorative items. It is a cash crop in West
Cotton and jute are two main fibre crops grown Bengal and adjoining eastern parts of the
in India. country. India lost large jute growing areas to
East Pakistan (Bangladesh) during partition. At
Cotton present, India produces about three-fifth of jute
production of the world. West Bengal accounts
Cotton is a tropical crop grown in kharif season
for about three-fourth of the production in the
in semi-arid areas of the country. India lost a
country. Bihar and Assam are other jute growing
large proportion of cotton growing area to
areas. Being concentrated only in a few states,
Pakistan during partition.


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