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Toxicon 44 (2004) 345–359
www.elsevier.com/locate/toxicon
Review
Most cited papers in Toxicon
Jorge A. Guimaraesa, Celia R. Carlinia,b,*
˜ ´
a
´
Center of Biotechnology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Predio 43.421,
¸
CEP 91501970 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
b
ˆ
Department of Biophysics, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500,
¸
´
Predio 43.422, CEP 91501970, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Available online 17 June 2004
Abstract
Citation of a published work is one of the parameters considered in the analysis of relevance and importance of scientific
contributions. In 2002, for the first time the Impact Factor of Toxicon has risen above 2.0, placing it at the 17th position among
76 journals in the ‘toxicology’ field. The aim of this article was to identify the most cited articles in Toxicon, that have
contributed to the steady increase of its Impact Factor. The number of citations, complete reference and type of all documents
appearing in Toxicon in the period 1963– 2003 were retrieved from the ISI Web-of-Science homepage. The documents
retrieved were sorted by the number of citations received. A ‘citation index’, defined as the number of citations divided by the
number of years since publication, was calculated for each document. It was clearly seen that reviews in Toxicon received
4.4-fold more citations than articles. Unexpectedly, it was found that recent papers were proportionally more cited than old
ones. A decrease in the proportion of papers dealing on ‘snakep’ through out the period and the broadened range of subjects of
the most cited papers recently published in Toxicon reflects an increased ‘visibility’ in other fields of toxinology. Research on
plant toxins gained its own space in Toxicon with newer publications showing high citation indexes. It can be postulated that
these facts helped to increase Toxicon’s Impact Factor from 1.248 in 1999 to 2.003 in 2002. With the increased number of
issues in Toxicon as well as publications of subject-dedicated volumes containing mostly reviews, the Impact Factor of Toxicon
is expected to keep rising in the near future.
q 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Impact factor; Citation; Snakes; Cyanobacteria; Plant toxins
Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
2. Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
3. Results and discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
1. Introduction relevance and importance of the scientific contribution
described in the cited paper. Although we recognize the
Citation of a published work by other researchers is existence of some problems and challenges to be solved
˜
in the use of citation counts (Guimaraes, 2000), citations
one of the parameters considered in the analysis of
of papers still provides the best recognition of the quality
of a single work and offer better measure of the
* Corresponding author. Address: Department of Biophysics,
ˆ
Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do
originality of an author’s contribution than article counts.
´
Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Predio 43.422, CEP 91501970,
¸ In fact, citation indexes are now well accepted as the
Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Tel.: þ55-51-3316-7606; fax: þ 55-51- recognition of greater academic status and, in some areas,
3316-7003. as the currency of the academic performance (Bodenhorn,
E-mail address: [email protected] (C.R. Carlini). 2003). The Institute for Scientific Information gathers
0041-0101/$ - see front matter q 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2004.05.002
346 ˜
J.A. Guimaraes, C.R. Carlini / Toxicon 44 (2004) 345–359
citation counts in all areas of knowledge and publishes
the Journal of Citation Reports, with the Impact Factor
of several thousand of journals. The Impact factor is
calculated as the ratio between the total number of
citations received by a journal in a given year divided by
number of articles published in the same journal in the
two-years preceding period.
In 2002, the Impact Factor of Toxicon has risen above
2.0, for the first time, placing it at the 17th position among
76 journals in the subject category ‘toxicology’. The aim of
this article was to identify the most cited articles in
Toxicon since 1963, that have contributed to make
the journal a respected and qualified vehicle in the
Toxinology field.
2. Methods Fig. 1. Major subjects of all publications in Toxicon in the period
1963 – 2003. The main subjects of all types of publications
The number of citations, complete reference and type (N ¼ 5398; includes abstracts of meetings) appearing in Toxicon
of all documents appearing in Toxicon in the period in the period 1963–December 2003 were subdivided into 11
ranging from 1963 to 2003 were retrieved from the ISI groups. The percentage of publications in each category is
represented in the figure.
Web-of-Science homepage (http://isi3.isiknowledge.com)
by searching the database Science Citation Index
Expanded, a multidisciplinary index to 5900 major
journals across 150 disciplines of the sciences. The
major criteria allowed for search are: date of publication, subjects published in Toxicon. Does this preference still
topic (subject), author(s), source (journal title), country remain the same today? Are the papers in these subjects
and full address of the author’s institution, and type of the most cited ones?
publication. The documents retrieved were then sorted by In order to rank the publications according to number of
the number of citations received up to the last week of citations, they were divided in groups of no more than 300
February, 2004. A ‘citation index’, defined as the number papers, the maximal number acceptable for the sorting
of citations divided by the number of years since process to be processed by the ISI Web of Science.
publication, was calculated for each document. Words in Initially, papers with at least 50 citations were retrieved
the title and/or abstract were considered as indicative of resulting in 138 documents (, 2.5% of all publications in
the main subject of the documents. Toxicon) which are shown in Table 1, ranked by the
number of citations. Ranking of the citation indexes as
well as the major subject of each paper are also indicated in
3. Results and discussion Table 1.
Among the publications in Table 1 are 17 reviews, 2
As a first step, full articles and reviews published in letters, 6 notes and 113 articles, corresponding to 14, 2.3, 0.9
Toxicon within the period 1963– December 2003 were and 3.2% of total number of publications in each category,
retrieved using the ‘source’ field to match Toxicon as the respectively. It is clearly seen that reviews in Toxicon
only criteria. This choice retrieved 5398 entries of which received 4.4-fold more citations than articles. None of the
3510 were classified as articles and 121 as reviews. 922 abstracts of meetings, which appeared in Toxicon up to
The other entries were abstracts of meetings (922), 1988, received more than 24 citations. It is worth stressing
editorial materials (45), obituaries (29), letters (87), that the ratio ‘all documents’ to ‘articles’ and ‘reviews’ is
bibliographies (23), notes (637) and corrections (23). about 1.5 considering all areas and all journals indexed in
The total number of full articles and reviews (3631) the ISI Web-of-Science databases. A similar ratio was found
published in Toxicon corresponded to 0.014% of all for Toxicon (5398 – 3631) over the entire 1963 – 2003
published documents indexed in the database. Fig. 1 period. After the decision that Toxicon would no longer
shows the distribution of major subjects of all documents publish abstracts of meetings, this ratio reduced to 1.15
published in Toxicon up to 2003. In that 40-year period, (2567 ‘all documents’; 2215 ‘articles plus reviews’) in the
snakes and PLA2 together accounted for about one third period 1989– 2003. This decision certainly contributed to
of publications, while bacteria and cyanobacteria the steady rise of the Impact Factor of Toxicon to reach the
accounted for another quarter, thus identifying the main value 2.003 in 2002.
˜
J.A. Guimaraes, C.R. Carlini / Toxicon 44 (2004) 345–359 347
Table 1
Most cited papers in Toxicon (with at least 50 citations in February 2004)
Most cited papersa Number Citation indexb Subject
of citations
Value Ranking
Kini and Evans (1989) (R) 200 14.28 4 PLA2’s-snakes
Couraud et al. (1982) 178 8.47 13 Scorpions
Carmichael et al. (1988) (L) 159 10.60 8 Cyanobacteria
Takasaki et al. (1988) 156 10.40 9 Snakes-cardiotoxins
Daly et al. (1987) (R) 135 8.43 14 Frogs
Krishnamurthy et al. (1986) 134 7.88 15 Cyanobacteria
Yang (1974) 131 4.72 40 Snakes
Gutierrez and Lomonte (1995) (R) 126 15.75 3 Snakes-PLA2’s-myotoxins
An and Carmichael (1994) 120 13.33 7 Cyanobacteria
Karlsson et al. (1972) 116 3.74 71 Snakes-PLA2’s-neurotoxins
Gutierrez et al. (1984) 105 5.52 32 Snakes-PLA2’s-myotoxins
Bagnis et al. 1980 104 4.52 43 Cyanobacteria-fishes
Daly et al. (1978) 104 4.16 53 Frogs
Lomonte and Gutierrez (1989) 103 7.37 17 Snakes-PLA2’s-myotoxins
Kini and Evans (1992) (R) 99 9.00 12 Snakes-hemotoxins
Vishwanath et al. (1987) 96 6.00 25 PLA2’s-snakes
Kini and Iwanaga (1986a) 96 5.64 30 Snake-PLA2’s-neurotoxins
Ho et al. (1986) (R) 96 5.64 30 Snakes
Habermann (1989) (R) 95 6.78 21 Cyanobacteria-neurotoxins
Arni and Ward (1996) 95 13.57 6 PLA2’s-snakes
Norton (1991) (R) 92 7.66 16 Coelenterates
Honkanan et al. (1994) 90 10.00 10 Cyanobacteria
Condrea et al. (1981a) 90 4.09 55 PLA2’s-snakes
Brand et al. (1972) 89 2.87 80 Insects
Homsibrandeburgo et al. (1988) 89 5.93 26 Snakes-PLA2’s-myotoxins
Burnett and Calton (1977) (R) 88 3.38 71 Coelenterates
Meriluoto et al. (1989) 88 6.28 21 Cyanobacteria
Lewis et al. (1991) 85 7.08 19 Cyanobacteria-fishes
Denson (1969) 85 2.50 92 Snakes-hemotoxins
Yang et al. (1981) 84 3.82 60 PLA2’s-snakes
Dasgupta and Sathyamoorthy (1984) 83 4.38 49 Bacteria
Botes et al. (1982a,b) 82 3.72 63 Cyanobacteria
Markland (1998) (R) 81 16.20 2 Snakes-hemotoxins
Kocholaty et al. (1971) 79 2.46 93 Snakes
Macek and Lebez (1988) 77 5.13 35 Coelenterates
Aird and Kaiser (1985) 76 4.22 51 Snakes
Sampaio et al. (1983) 74 3.70 65 Scorpions
Yoshizumi et al. (1990) 73 5.61 31 PLA2’s-snakes
Gopalakrishnakone et al. (1984) 73 3.84 59 PLA2’s-snakes-neurotoxins
Chippaux et al. (1991) (R) 71 5.91 27 Snakes
Harada et al. (1994) 71 7.88 15 Cyanobacteria
Kogure et al. (1988) 71 4.73 39 Neurotoxins
Yotsu et al. (1987) (N) 71 4.43 46 Bacteria-Fishes
Norton and Pallaghy (1998) 70 14.00 5 Cys-knot proteins
Nukina et al. (1984) 70 3.68 66 Cyanobacteria
Beress et al. (1975) 70 2.50 92 Coelenterates
Harada et al. (1988) 69 4.60 42 Cyanobacteria
Hokama et al. (1977) 69 2.65 87 Cyanobacteria
Kini and Iwanaga (1986b) 68 4.00 57 Snakes-PLA2’s-neurotoxins
Meier and Theakston (1986) 68 4.00 57 Snakes
Mahmood and Carmichael (1986) 68 4.00 57 Cyanobacteria
Mandelbaum et al. (1982) 68 3.24 73 Snakes-hemotoxins
Ferlan and Lebez (1974) 68 2.34 96 Coelenterates
(continued on next page)
348 ˜
J.A. Guimaraes, C.R. Carlini / Toxicon 44 (2004) 345–359
Table 1 (continued)
Most cited papersa Number Citation indexb Subject
of citations
Value Ranking
Ouyang et al. (1992) (R) 67 6.09 24 Snakes-hemotoxins
Suganuma et al. (1992) 67 6.09 24 Cyanobacteria
Broad et al. (1979) (N) 67 2.79 81 Snakes
Kochva (1987) (R) 67 4.18 52 Snakes
Thelestam and Blomqvist (1988) (R) 66 4.40 48 Bacteria
Gutierrez et al. (1985) 65 3.61 67 Snakes-hemotoxins
Dufourcq et al. (1982) 65 3.09 76 Snakes-cardiotoxins
Carmichael et al. (1979) 64 2.66 86 Cyanobacteria
Gutierrez et al. (1980) 64 2.78 82 Snakes
Fletcher and Jiang (1993) (R) 62 6.20 23 Snakes-cardiotoxins
Endean et al. (1969) 62 1.82 110 Coelenterates
Lutz (1979) 62 2.58 89 Bacteria
Mattocks et al. (1989) 62 4.42 47 Plants
Glenn et al. (1983) 62 3.10 75 Snakes
Harada et al. (1990) 61 4.69 41 Cyanobacteria
Fontecillacamps et al. (1982) 61 2.90 79 Scorpions
Theakston and Warrell (1991) 61 5.08 36 Snake-antivenoms
Thompson and Wannemacher (1986) 61 3.38 71 Fungi
Watanabe et al. (1988) 61 4.06 56 Cyanobacteria
Ishikawa et al. (1977) 60 2.30 98 Snakes-neurotoxins
Zlotkin et al. (1971) 59 1.84 108 Scorpions
Zlotkin et al. (1972a) 59 1.90 106 Scorpions
Gutierrez et al. (1988) (N) 59 3.93 58 Snakes-antivenoms
Wollberg et al. (1988) 59 3.93 58 Snakes-cardiotoxins
Terao et al. (1986) 58 3.41 70 Cyanobacteria
Runnegar and Falconer (1986) 58 3.41 70 Cyanobacteria
Gelderblom et al. (1983) 58 2.90 79 Fungi
Fohlman and Eaker (1977) 58 2.23 100 Snakes-PLA2’s-myotoxins
Gutierrez et al. (1981) 58 2.63 88 Snakes-antivenom
Ownby et al. (1984) 58 3.05 77 Snakes-antivenom
Habermann and Chengraude (1975) 58 2.07 103 Neurotoxins
Kini and Evans (1990) (R) 58 4.46 45 Snakes-hemotoxins
Noguchi and Hashimoto (1973) (N) 58 1.93 105 Fishes-bacteria
Seyberth et al. (1972) 57 1.83 109 Bacteria-fungi
Abbas et al. (1993) 57 5.70 28 Fungi
Kochva et al. (1982) 57 2.71 84 Snakes
Jellett et al. (1992) 57 5.18 34 Cyanobacteria-shellfishes
Holmes (1991) 57 4.75 38 Cyanobacteria
Hawkins et al. (1997) 57 9.50 11 Cyanobacteria
Ismail (1995) (R) 56 7.00 20 Scorpions
Rothschild et al. (1970) 56 1.69 114 Insects
Kao and Fuhrman (1967) 55 1.52 118 Neurotoxins
Condrea et al. (1981b) 55 2.50 92 PLA2’s-snakes
Chen et al. (1987) 55 3.43 69 PLA2’s-snakes
Chang et al. (1977) (L) 55 2.11 102 Snakes
Harris and Macdonell (1981) 55 2.50 92 PLA2’s-snakes
Tsetlin et al. (1982) 54 2.57 90 Neurotoxins
Dickey et al. (1990) 54 4.15 54 Cyanobacteria
Zlotkin et al. (1972b) 54 1.74 112 Scorpions
Russell et al. (1973) 54 1.80 111 Snakes-antivenoms
Fiorentini et al. (1988) 54 3.60 68 Bacteria
Andersen et al. (1993) 54 5.40 33 Cyanobacteria
Maeda et al. (1978) 54 2.16 101 Snakes
Ownby et al. (1983) 54 2.70 85 Snakes-antivenoms
Rezende et al. (1991) 54 4.50 44 Spiders
(continued on next page)
˜
J.A. Guimaraes, C.R. Carlini / Toxicon 44 (2004) 345–359 349
Table 1 (continued)
Most cited papersa Number Citation indexb Subject
of citations
Value Ranking
Baden and Mende (1982) 53 2.52 91 Cyanobacteria
Noguchi et al. (1969) 53 1.55 117 Cyanobacteria-crustaceans
Denson et al. (1972) 53 1.71 113 Snakes-hemotoxins
Harvey et al. (1982) 53 2.52 91 Snakes-cardiotoxins
Rosenberg et al. (1989) 53 3.78 61 Snakes-PLA2’s
Nakanishi (1985) 53 2.94 78 Cyanobacteria
Ismail et al. (1992) 53 4.81 37 Scorpions
Cessi and Fiume (1969) (N) 53 1.55 117 Fungi
Peterson et al. (1983) 53 2.65 87 Bacteria
Proctor et al. (1975) 52 1.85 107 Cyanobacteria
Gutierrez et al. (1989) 52 3.71 64 Snakes-PLA2’s-myotoxins
Harada et al. (1991) 52 4.33 50 Cyanobacteria
Edery et al. (1972) 52 1.67 115 Insects
Baden et al. (1981) 52 2.36 95 Cyanobacteria
Runnegar et al. (1987) (N) 52 3.25 72 Cyanobacteria
Craik et al. (2001) 51 25.50 1 Cys knot proteins
Beisel (1972) 51 1.64 116 Bacteria
Delori et al. (1981) 51 2.31 97 Scorpions
Ovadia and Kochva (1977) 51 1.96 104 Snakes-antivenoms
Terao et al. (1994) 51 5.66 29 Cyanobacteria
Ji et al. (1996) 51 7.28 18 Scorpions
Runnegar et al. (1991) 50 4.16 53 Cyanobacteria
Benoit et al. (1986) 50 2.94 78 Cyanobacteria
˜
Carlini and Guimaraes (1981) 50 2.27 99 Plants
Baloda et al. (1983) 50 2.50 92 Bacteria
Botes et al. (1982a,b) 50 2.38 94 Cyanobacteria
Oshima et al. (1987) 50 3.12 74 Cyanobacteria-shellfishes
Kimura et al. (1982) 50 2.38 94 Cyanobacteria-fishes
Dawson (1998) (R) 50 10.00 10 Cyanobacteria
Nakamura and Yasumoto (1985) 50 2.77 83 Fishes-bacteria
a
Includes articles, reviews (R), notes (N) and letters (L).
b
Citation index: number of citations divided by the number of years since publication up to 2003.
The percentage of papers in each of the major subjects in to comprise up to 300 papers) were retrieved. Eventually
Table 1 is represented in Fig. 2. It can be seen that subjects three or more papers were considered, if the numbers of
‘Snakes’ (39%) and ‘Cyanobacteria’ (28.2%, including blue citations were equal. Table 2 shows the number of citations
green algae and dinoflagelletes) have an increased these papers received up to February 2004 and their
representation among the most cited papers as compared citation index. A total of 66 papers were found, being 28
to all publications (Fig. 1), emphasizing the interest and revisions, about half of them published in the last ten years.
concentrations of authors and readers of Toxicon in these When the citation index is used for ranking these papers, a
topics. As expected, 95 (70%) out of the 138 papers with at very different pattern was found, as recent papers generally
least 50 citations were published 15 or more years ago scored higher than older ones. Considering the recent
(1988 or before). So far, only 34 out of the 2090 articles decisions of increasing the number of issues in Toxicon
(including reviews) published in Toxicon in the 90s or later from 12 to 16 per year and publishing of subject-dedicated
received 50 or more citations. An expressive number volumes containing mostly review articles, it can be
(,85%) of the papers in Table 1 with 70 citations or expected that the Impact Factor of Toxicon will keep rising
more are among the five most cited articles of their first in the near future.
authors. Table 3 shows the 36 papers with a citation index of 7.0
For a second type of analysis, the two most cited articles or higher, found either in Tables 1 or 2. Among these, 11
or reviews of each period (the number of years was chosen articles were published in the year 2000 or after, and only 5
350 ˜
J.A. Guimaraes, C.R. Carlini / Toxicon 44 (2004) 345–359
Fig. 2. Major subjects of publications in Toxicon with 50 or more citations in February 2004. The main subjects of papers in Toxicon with at
least 50 citations in February 2004 (from Table 1) were grouped and represented as percentage of the total number (138) of publications
(panel A). Papers (total of 54) in the category ‘snakes’ were then subdivided into more specific topics, as shown in panel B.
were 15 years old or more. Of the 36 papers listed, 14 are asterisk p used as wildcard. The other criteria for search
review papers. Only one publication not classified as review were 1963– 2003 period and source Toxicon. Using all
or article appeared in Table 3 (a letter by Carmichael and possibilities, a total of 171 documents dealing with plants
co-workers in 1988). The predominance of papers on snake were retrieved, of which 107 were articles, 12 reviews,
venoms components, including PLA2’s, as observed in 18 abstracts and 34 other types of papers. About 65% of
Figs. 1 and 2, is not seen in this analysis. Instead, toxic the articles (70/107) and reviews (8/12) describe toxic
cyanobacteria/fungi (11 papers) and spider/scorpion toxins effects or chemical structure of compounds derived from
(7 papers) were also among the more frequent subjects plants. Table 5 lists the 18 most cited papers with at
(Fig. 3). Two papers on Cys-knotted proteins, with least 20 citations in the 1963– 2003 period or a citation
representatives found in plants, fungi and animals, scored index of 5.0 or higher. Fig. 3 shows these papers ranked
among the 7 highest citation indexes. by the number of citations (right panel) and by their
The uncommon observation that recent papers were citation index (left panel). Here again, the tendency of
proportionally more cited than old ones, as indicated by older papers to have more citations is not so evident as
their citation indexes, agrees with the increase of only 7 papers (39%) published more than 15 years
Toxicon’s Impact Factor in the last years (from 1.248 appeared in the list (Table 3). However, newer
in 1999 to 2.003 in 2002). On the other hand, as shown publications in plants showed higher citation indexes
in Table 4 the percentage of full papers (abstracts of similarly to what was seen for all subjects.
meetings not included) dealing with snake venom The 119 articles and reviews on plant topics correspond
components and/or phospholipases published in Toxicon to , 3.3% of all full papers in Toxicon so far.
remained around 20% over three periods of time within This percentage contrasts with the much smaller proportion
the period ranging from 1963 to 2003. However, there (0.04%) of papers dealing with toxic plants published within
was a decrease in the proportion of these papers from the 1963– 2003 period in all journals indexed in the ISI
, 39 to 29% when data in Table 1 are compared with Web-of-Sciences database. To retrieve these papers, the
that in Table 3. The broadened range of subjects of the ‘topic’ field of the search page had consecutively the
most cited papers published recently in Toxicon reflects following arguments: ‘toxicp’ AND ‘seedp’; ‘toxicp’ AND
an increased ‘visibility’ of the journal in other fields of ‘rootp; ‘toxicp’ AND ‘leaf’; ‘toxicp’ AND ‘flowerp; ‘toxicp’
toxinology over the last decade. AND ‘barkp; ‘toxicp’ AND ‘fruitp’. The sum of papers
To retrieve papers published in Toxicon dealing with retrieved was 10,012, corresponding to 9614 articles and
plants, the ‘topic’ field of the ISI Web-of-Science search 398 reviews. This number is probably overestimated as one
page had the argument: ‘plantp OR seedp OR rootp OR paper could be retrieved more than one time. If a broader
leaf OR leaves OR flowerp OR barkp OR fruitp’, with concept of plant is applied in order to include lower
˜
J.A. Guimaraes, C.R. Carlini / Toxicon 44 (2004) 345–359 351
Table 2
Citation index of the most cited articles and reviews published in Toxicon in each of the periods spanning 1963–2003
Period Number of Articles Author(s) (year) Numbera Citationb index Subject
and Reviews (R) of citations
1963– 1969 190 Denson (1969) 85 2.50 Snakes-hemotoxins
1R Endean et al. (1969) 62 1.82 Coelenterates
Zlotkin and Shulov (1969) (R) 25 0.73 Scorpions
1970– 1971 212 Kocholaty et al. (1971) 79 2.46 Snakes
0R Zlotkin et al. (1971) 59 1.84 Scorpions
1972– 1976 293 Yang (1974) 131 4.72 Snakes
0R Karlsson et al. (1972) 116 3.74 Snakes-PLA2’s-neurotoxins
1977– 1981 265 Daly et al. (1978) 104 4.16 Frogs
7R Bagnis et al. (1980) 104 4.52 Cyanobacteria
Condrea et al. (1981a) 90 4.09 Snakes-PLA2’s
Burnett and Calton (1977) (R) 88 3.38 Coelenterates
McKinstry (1978) (R) 24 0.96 Snakes
1982– 1984 254 Couraud et al. (1982) 178 8.47 Scorpions
4R Gutierrez et al. (1984) 105 5.52 Snakes-PLA2’s-myotoxins
Theakston (1983) (R) 40 2.00 Snakes-antivenoms
Maretic (1983) (R) 30 1.50 Spiders
1985– 1987 265 Krishnamurthy et al. (1986) 134 7.88 Cyanobacteria
6R Vishwanath et al. (1987) 96 6.00 Snakes-PLA2’s
Daly et al. (1987) (R) 135 8.43 Frogs
Ho et al. (1986) (R) 96 5.64 Snakes
1988– 1989 206 Carmichael et al. (1988) (L) 159 10.60 Cyanobacteria
8R Takasaki et al. (1988) 156 10.40 Snakes-cardiotoxins
Lomonte and Gutierrez (1989) 103 7.37 Snakes-PLA2’s-myotoxins
Kini and Evans (1989) (R) 200 14.28 PLA2’s-snakes


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